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27 Cards in this Set

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Two phases to mammalian menstrual cycles
Follicular phase, luteal phase
What seperates the phases of menstrual cycle
Ovulation
Follicular stage
10-20 primary oocytes resume meiosis under control of FSH follicle stimulating hormone and LH Lutenizing hormone
What stimulates growth of follicle?
the growth of the follicle is stimulated by FSH early in the follicular stage
What hormone spikes at ovulation?
Lutenizing hormone spikes, inducing ovulation.
What dose estrogen do in the follicular stage?
Vascularization of the endometrium of the uterus
What hormones are involved in the follicular stage?
FSH, LH, progesterone
What does LH do in the follicular stage?
stimulates progesterone levels late in the follicular phase. Onset of ovulation is induced by a sharp increase of LH.
What is the corpus luteum and what is the role?
The corpus luteum secretes progesterone and estrogen. The estrogen increases vascularization of uterus and the progesterone inhibits more follicular growth.
Role of progesteron in the luteal phase?
Progesterone inhibits FSH, which inhibits follicular growth.
What happens if fertilization occurs?
the corpus luteum is maintained, which secretes estrogen and progesterone to inhibit follicular growth during pregnancy.
What happens to the corpus luteum if the egg is not fertilized?
the CL degenerates due to estrogen and progesteronme decline. This results in menstruation. A new follicular stage begins.
What is the corpus luteum?
Place where oocyte used to be. Fluid filled sac becomes CL after ovulation
What are the stages of the follicular phase?
Primordial oocyte, primary, secondary, Graafian
What do the leydig cells do?
Secrete testosterone
Sertoli cells
support and nourish the developing spermatocytes
What do the Primordial germ cells develop into?
Spermatogonia
Semineferous tubules
Become lined with diploid spermatogonia and growth stopped until sexual maturity
Explain the development
1. sertoli cells support spermatocytes
2. seminiferous tubules become lined with diploid spermatogonia
3. once sexually mature, spermatagonia undergo meiosis
--> primary --> secondary
4. Spermatozoa develops head, midpiece, tail
5. Seminiferous epithelium releases sperm
What regulates the hormones in spermatogenesis?
1. Gonadotropin releasing factors from the hypothalamus.
2. Prolactin and lutenizing hormone from anterior pituitary gland.
3. Leydig cells stimulated by this to make testosterone
4. Testosterone supports leydig cells and helps support maturation of spermatogenic cells
5. Excess levels of testosterone initiate release of inhibin
What does the hypothalamus release?
Gonadotropin releasing factor which trigger release of prolactin and lutenizing hormone from the anterior pituitary gland
What does the anterior pituitary gland release?
Prolactin and lutenizing hormone. stimulates leydig cells to make testosterone
what stimulates making of testosterone? Who makes testosterone?
Prolactin and LH release stimulates the leydig cells in the interstitial tissue to make testosterone.
what does testosterone do?
Assists in maturation of spermatogenic cells and support of sertoli cells
what if there is too much testosterone?
Too much initiates release of inhibin by the sertoli cells. This halts the maturation of additional spermatozoa
What does sertoli cells do? Two functions
Supports growth of spermatogenic cells and secretes inhibin to stop maturation of spermatozoa
What is the name of the CL all degraded?
Atretic follicle