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155 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What is Energy?
gives us the ability to complete tasks, do work
What are the 7 most common forms of energy?
Mechanical, Electrical, Heat, Chemical, Nuclear, Electromagnetic, and Sound
What are the two types of Mechanical energy?
Potential and Kintetic
What is Potential energy?
stored energy
What is kinetic energy?
energy in motion
What is electrical energy?
the moving of electrons
What is Motor?
it converts electrical energy into mechanical energy
What is AC?
alternating current (for house use and car use) travels long distance voltage is changed using a transformer
What is DC?
(created by edison) direct current it flows in one direction, goes negative through the appliance and comes out positive. (battery)
What is heat energy?
the internal motion of molecules (as the heat energy increases you increase the speed of molecules)
What is chemical energy?
energy released by the breaking of chemical bonds
What is Biomass energy?
a form of chemical energy, (formed by combustion)
What is the purpose of an engine?
it converts chemical energy into mechanical energy
What is nuclear energy?
it deals with the nucleus of an atom
What is nuclear fission?
nucleus of atom splits (protons and neutrons) it releases heat energy and gamma radiation
What is nuclear fusion?
combining two nuclei
What is electromagnetic energy?
form of energy that travels as a wave (visible spectrum ROYGBIV, gamma, x-ray, radio waves, microwaves, infrared, beta, alpha, cosmic, ultraviolet
What is sound energy?
vibrational energy
What is conventional energy?
energy used today
What are some examples of conventional energies?
Oil, Coal, Natural Gas, Nuclear Fission
What are some ineffiecant (future) energies?
Solar, Fuel Cells, WInd, Hydroelectric, Nuclear Fusion, Hybrid
What is work?
to apply a force in the direction of a displacement or a distance
What is torque?
rotational work (work in a cirlce)
A car has ___ torque and ___ horsepower
low torque
high horsepower
A truck has ___ torque and ___ horsepower
high torque
low horsepower
What is power?
how fast one can complete work or how much energy you consume to complete work
What is mass?
measure of how much matter something contains
What is volume?
how much space something takes up,
What is length?
measure of distance
What is mass measured in metrics units?
grams
What is mass measured in Englsih units?
pounds, ounces, tons
What is volume measured in Metrics Units?
liters
What is volume measured in Englsish Units?
gallon, quart, pint, cup, tablespoon, teaspoon, fl.oz
What is length measured in metric units?
meters
What is length measured in english units?
inch, mile, yard, feet
What is a generator?
a generator is a motor in reverse it goes from mechanical to electrical
What is an alternator?
mechanical to electrical using AC
What are the seven steps of the scientific method?
1. General Question
2. Hypothesis
3. Experiment
4. Collect the Data
5. Analyzing
6. Interpretation
7. Conclusion
What is an independent variable?
one thing being tested
What is a dependent variable?
things that change because of the independent variable
What are the controls?
things that stay the same
What is Bias?
when opinion effects the outcome (not good)
What is repeat?
everytime the experiment can be repeated with the same outcome
What is quantitative data?
deals with numbers
What is qualitative data?
descriptive data
What is the scientific theory?
accepted by most
What is the scientific law?
accepted by all
What is density?
Density is a comparison between the mass and volume of an object
Unit of Power in the Metric system is measured in what?
Watts
Unit of power in the english system is measured in what?
horsepower
What is solar energy?
converting electromagnetic radiation into electricity (need sun- very expensive)
What are fuel cells?
converts hydrogen into electricity (not safe, wont go far, chemical form of energy, hardly any pollution)
What is Hydroelectric energy?
moving water>turbine>generator
What is electricity?
form of energy that deals with moving charge
In electricity, like charge will?
repel
In electricity, unlike charges will?
attract
What is coulomb's law?
the force between charged particles

F= (k)(q)(q)/D^2

1.as distance increases force decreases

2.as the quantity of charge in coulombs increases force increases
What is current?
the flow of electrons (most dangerous to a human)
What is current measured in?
amps
1 amp=?
the rate of flow of one coulomb of charge (5 amps= 5 coulombs of charge)
Voltage is also known as?
electrical potential energy, or electrical pressure
When does voltage flow?
When a difference in voltage exists (high to low)
What is electrical potential energy measure in?
joules
What is charge measured in?
coulombs
What is electrical resistance?
anything that slows the movement of charge or the CURRENT (caused by friction)
Electrical resistance is measured in what?
ohms
What are the 3 factors that affect electrical resistance?
1. Width of a wire ("gauge")
2. Type of material
3. Temperature
How does gauge affect the Electrical Resistance?
Narrow Wires have high resistance while thicker wires have lower resistance

(longer length higher resistance)
How does type of material affect Electrical Resistance?
Copper/Aluminum - less reistance
RUbber- lots of resistance
How does temperature affect electrical resistance?
Higher temperature= higher resistance

Lower temperature = lower resistance
What is OHm's Law?
The relationship between current, voltage, and resistance
What is current measured in?
amps
What is voltage measured in?
volts
What is resistance measured in?
ohms
What are the two types of current?
AC & DC
WHich has more resistance- a dry human body or a wet human body?
a dry human body has more resistance
What is DC current produced by?
A generator
Who discvored DC current?
edison
In DC current electron flow..?
from negative to postive
AC current is produced by a type of generator called an?
alternator
We use AC electricity mostly, in?
our homes
AC current was created by?
Tesla
Draw a series circut
:-)
What stays the same throughout a series circut?
the current ( no current drop-- all resistors get the same flow of charge)
What is a disadvantage of a series circut?
if one thing is off, then all is off
Where do we find series circuts in our home?
light switches
What is the voltage drop in a series circut proportional to?
its resistance
Draw a parallel circut
:-P
Is there a voltage drop in a parallel circut?
nope cuz voltage is the same for each device
Is there a current drop for a parallel circut>
yes indeed there is
As the number of parallel branches is increased the resistance?
of the circut is lowered
Where do we find parallel circuts in our home?
everywhere/all
What is the disadvantage of parallel circuts?
the current drop is a disadvantage cuz you wont have the same amount of current running through each device
What is chemistry?
the study of matter, and its reactions in nature
What is an element?
the most basic building block of all matter, each element is a different type of atom
The Pereodic Table Of Elements was first created by? and when?
Dimitri Mendeleev in 1869
What does black stand for on the table?
solid at room temp.
what does blue stand for on the table?
liquid at room temp
what does red stand for?
gas at room temperature
what does boxed white stand for?
unstability, only formed in lab and artificial
why do some elements symbols not match their name?
originally named in other languages
A column on the periodic table of elements is known as a group or a ?
family
A row on the periodic table of elements is known as a ?
period
Group 1 is elements Li-Fr, and is called ?
Alkali Earth Metals
Details on Group 1?
it is very reactive with water and produces a basic solution when mixed
Group 2 is elements Ba-Ra and its name is?
the Alkaline Earth Metals
Details of Group 2?
reacts less vigorously with water than the alkali's but will also form a basic solution when mixed
Group 3-12 is called?
Metals or Transitional Metals
GRoup 13-15 is elements B-Bl and is called?
Metalloids
Details of group 13-15
exhibit metallic like properties
Group 16 is O-Po and is called?
Chalcogens
Details of Group 16
found in many minerals in the earth, ore forming minerals
Group 17 is F-At and is called?
Halogens
Details of Group 17
Known as the salt forming elements
Group 18 is He-Rn and is called?
the noble gasses
Details of group 18?
these elements only combine with themselves
What is an ion?
atoms that give or take electrons
When ions lose electrons their charge is? they are called? and they tend to be?
positive, called cations, tend to be metals
When ions gain electrons their charge is? they are called? and they tend to be?
negative, called anions, and non-metals
What is atomic radius?
size of the atom
What is electronegativity?
the ability of an atom to attract or take electrons
What is ionization energy?
the amount of energy required to remove an electron
What is an atom?
comes from greek, and is composed of 3 sub-atomic particles
What are the 3 subatomic particles of an atom?
electron, proton, neutron
What charge does an electron have? where is it located in the atom?
negative charge, in the shell of an atom
What charge does a proton have and where is it located in the atom?
positive and in the nucleus
What charge does neutron have and where is it located in the atom?
netural charge, and in the nucleus
What does it mean when the amount of prtons and electrons in an atom are the same?
that the element is stable and netural
What are the protons and neutrons called?
nucleons
What is atomic number?
the number of protons in the element/atom
What is atomic mass?
the sum of the number of protons and neutrons
What are isotopes?
varieties of an element with different numbers of neutrons
What is a molecule?
wen more than one atom combines together/can be the same type of atom
Which numbers are never written in subscript form?
zero or one
What are the two types of molecules?
compound, and diatomic
what is a compound molecule?
when two more more DIFFERENT types of atoms combine
what is a diatomic molecule?
when 2 or 3 of the EXACT SAME type of atoms combining
What is chemical bonding?
the ways in which molecules are held together
what are the 3 types of chemical bonding?
covalent, ionic, polar covalent
What is a covalent bond?
a bond between non-metals, where electrons are shared

(the electronegativity difference is between .2-.5)
What is an ionic bond?
bond between metals and non-metals and formed by a cation and anion

(electronegativity difference is greater than +2)
What is the relationship between cations and anions?
cations donates electrons to anion, because the anions need them and then accept them
What is a polar covalent bond?
electrons are shared by atoms, but unequally, molecule still has a charge.

(electronegatvity difference is less than 1.6)
What is an endothermic Chemical reaction?
a reaction that absorbs heat to drive the reaction-- going to be cold
What is an exothermic chemical reaction?
a reaction tht gives off heat when the reaction goes through-- going to feel hot ( most reactions are exothermic)
How do you determine the physical properties of matter?
they are the properties that describe the look or feel of a substance
What are some physical properties?
color, smell, freezing point, melting point, boiling point etc.
What is the most important trait of physical changes?
they are all reversable
What are some examples of physical changes?
melting, freezing, boiling, dissolving
What is a chmeical property of matter?
properties that relate to how one substance reacts with another or how a substance transforms
What are some ways to determine a chemical property?
combustable or not? reactivity with water,
What is an example of a chemical change?
sodium reacting with water
A dry human body has a resistance of ?
500,000 ohms
A wet human body has a resistance of about?
100 ohms
How much current does it take for it to be fatal for more than a second?
.07 amps