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75 Cards in this Set

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sovereignty
The ability of states to carry out actions or policies within a territory independently from external actors or internal rivals
Institutions
organizations or activities that are self-perpetuating and valued for their own sake
Politics
the struggle in any group for power that will give a person or people the ability to make decisions for the larger group
Comparative Politics
Subfield of political science; Compares the governance systems of countries in order to shed light on the countries under study and on our own system
Comparative Method
the means of making comparisons across cases
Quantitative Method
Gathering of data across a large number of countries in order to look for correlations and test hypotheses about cause and effect. Emphasis on breadth
Qualitative Method
Master of a limited number of cases through the detailed study of their history, language and culture.
Emphasis of depth over breadth
Aristotle
(384-322 BCE)
First separated the study of politics from philosophy; used comparative method to study city-states; conceived of empirical study of politics with practical purpose
Niccolo Machiavelli
(1469-1527)
First modern political scientist; emphasis on statecraft and empirical knowlege; analyzed different political systems; believed results were useful. The Prince
Thomas Hobbes
(1588-1679)
Developed the notion of a social contract; whereby people surrender certain liberties in favor of order; advocated powerful state in Leviathan
John Locke
(1632-1704)
Argued that private property is essential to individual freedom and prosperity; advocated a weak state in Two Treatises of Government
Charles Louis Secondant,
Baron de Montesquieu
(1689-1755)
Studies of government systems led to his advocating the separation of powers within government in The Spirit of Laws
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
(1712-1778)
Said that citizens' rights are inalienable and cannot be taken away by the state; influenced civil rights; discussed ideas in The Social Contract
Karl Marx
(1818-1883)
Theory of economic development and inequality in his book Das Kapital; predicted the eventual collapse of capitalism and democracy
Max Weber
(1864-1920)
Wrote on bureaucracy, forms of authority, impact of culture on economic and political development; Economy and Society
Traditional Approach
Emphasis on describing political systems and their various institutions
Behavioral Revolution
shirt from descriptive to causality, explanation, and prediction. emphasis on the political behavior of individuals as opposed to larger political structures and on a quantitative over qualitative methodology. Modernization Theory predominant
Modernization Theory
As societies develop they will become capitalist democracies, converging a shared set of values and characteristics.
DISPROVEN
Post Behavioralism
rejection of a grand theory of politics, criticism of modernization theory, diversity of methods and political approaches, emphasizing gender, culture, environment, and globalization
State
In the context of Weber: the organization that maintains a monopoly of violence over a country. a set of institutions to carry out policy. highly institutionalized. sovereign
Regime
norms and rules regarding freedom and collective equality, locus of power, and use of power. institutionalized but can be changed by dramatic events. democratic or authoritarian. embodied in a constitution
Government
leadership or elite in charge of running the state. weakly institutionalized. elected officials (ie president) or unelected (ie dictator), limited by regime
Country
all the concepts (state, regime, government,) as well as people who live within that political system
Consensus
individuals band together to protect and create common rules; leadership chosen from people; security through cooperation; Leads to Democratic Rule
Coercion
individuals brought together by a rule; imposes authority and monopolizes power; Security through domination
Leads to Authoritarian Rule
Legitimacy
a value whereby something or someone is recognized and accepted as right and proper
Traditional Legitimacy
someone or something is valid because "it has always been that way" Built on the idea that certain aspects are to be accepted because of length of existence
Charismatic Legitimacy
power of ideas. embodied in one person who can move the public through these ideas and the manner in which he or she presents them
Rational-Legal Legitimacy
based on system of laws and procedures that are highly institutionalized
Federalism
significant powers (taxation, lawmaking, and security) are devolved to regional bodies
unitary states
invest most political power at the national level, with limited local authority.
strong states
have the power for basic tasks such as: defending territory, making and enforcing rules, collecting taxes, and managing the economy
weak states
cannot execute basic tasks: rules haphazardly applied, tax evasion, corrupt officals, armed rivals to the state, lowered economic development, lacks legitimacy
failed states
the collapse of a state resulting in complete loss of power. Anarchy and violence erupt
Capacity
the ability of the stated to wield power in order to carry out the basic tasks of providing security and reconciling freedom and equality. Ability to formulate and enact policies.
Autonomy
ability of the stated to wield its power independently of the public. Can carry out a policy without consulting the public or worrying about strong opposition
Society
complex human organization, a collection of people bound by shared institutions that define how human relations should be conducted
Ethnicity
specific attributes and societal institutions that make one group of people culturally different; based on customs, language, religion or other; ascriptive (assigned at birth); not inherently political
Nations
bound together by a common set of political aspirations, among which the most important is self government
National Identity
based on the concept of a nation; often derived from ethnicity; inherently political; the basis for nationalism (pride in ones people and belief that they have a unique political destiny)
Nationalism
A pride in one's people and the belief that they have their own unique political destiny that is separate from those of others.
Citizenship
an individuals relationship to the state; persons swears allegiance/receives benefits; purely political and more easily changed than ethnic or national identity; basis for patriotism
Patriotism
pride in one's state. People have pride in their political system and seek to defend and promote it.
Nation-state
a state encompassing one dominant nation that it claims to embody and represent.
Napoleonic France good example
Top Down View
view of ethnic conflict
conflict is generated by government; can be stopped by arresting political leaders responsible; outside force effective
Bottom Up View
view of ethnic conflict
generated by long standing friction btw groups; animosity must burn itself out
Exclusion
form of ethnic/national conflict
Some groups are not granted full political rights
Removal
form of ethnic/national conflict
One group seeks to eliminate another group through ethnic cleansing or to integrate it through forced assimilation
Genocide
form of ethnic/national conflict
One group explicitly seeks to kill off an ethnic or national group
Political Attitudes
concerned with the speed and method of political change; classified as radical, liberal, conservative or reactionary; particularistic/relative
Radicalism
usually defined as a belief in dramatic, often revolutionary change of the existing political, social, or economic order. believe in fundamental transformation
Liberalism (a)
favors evolutionary transformation. progressive change can happen through changes within the system; long term commitment
Conservatism
questions whether any significant or profound change in existing institutions is necessary; doubt that change is good in itself; change will replace one set of problems with another
Reactionary
seeks to restore political, social, and economic institutions that once existed; some do not look back to a specific peirod but want to return to a fictional ideal
Political Ideologies
sets of political vlaues regarding the fundamental goals of politics; 5 dominant modern philosophies (liberalism/socialdemocracy/communism/fascism/anarchy) universalistic
Liberalism (i)
limited state role in society and economic activity; emphasizes a high degree of personal freedom over social equality
Social Democracy
supports private property and markets but believes that state has a strong role to play in regulating the economy and providing benefits to the public; seeks to balance freedom and equality
Fascism
stresses a low degree of both personal freedom and equality in order to achieve a powerful state
Communism
emphasizes limited personal freedom and strong state in order to achieve social equality; property is wholly owned by the state and market forces are eliminated; state takes on task of production and other economic decisions
Anarchy
stresses the elimination of the state and private property as a way to achieve both freedom and equality for all; believes that a high degree of personal freedom and social equality is possible
Political Culture
the basic norms for political activity in society; determining factor in what ideologies will dominate a country's political regime; unique to a given country or group; distinct from political attitudes and ideologies
Political Economy
the study of how politics and economics are related and how their relationship shapes the balance of freedom and equality
Central Bank
controls the amount of money in the economy; controls the cost of borrowing money; lowers interest rates to stimulate the economy; raises interest rates to check inflation
Inflation
prices begin to rise/money loses its value
(too few goods/too much money)
Hyperinflation
inflation that is more than 50 percent a month for more than two months in a row
Regulations
rules or orders that set the boundaries of a given procedure
indirect-safety/environmental
direct- competition and innovation
Monopoly
single producer of a good or service that is able to dominate the market
Cartel
grouping of producers that, although individually unable to dominate a market, try to do so in collaboration with a small number of other firms.
Tariffs
taxes on imported goods
Quotas
ways to limit the quantity of a good coming into the country
Nontariff barriers
create health, packaging, or other restrictions
Comparative Advantage
ability to produce a particular good or service more efficiently relative to other countries' efficiency in producing the same good or service
Political-economic system
the actual relationship between political and economic institutions in a particular country, as well as the policies and outcomes they create
Liberalism (PE system)
high priority on individual and economic freedom; advocates limiting state power in favor of greater freedoms for the individual and the market (Adam Smith)
Capitalism
a system of production based on private ownership and free markets. state provides public goods; regulations kept to a minimum