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61 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
All _________ are composed of cells.
living things
Cells are basic units of ______ and ______ in all organisms.
structures and functions
New cells are produced from___.
existing cells
The cells of eukaryotes have a ________; the cells of ______ don't.
Eukaryotic cells also have a variety of specialized structures called ______.
controls most cell processes and contains DNA
uses energy from food to make high energy compounds
provides support for the cell
cell wall
maintains cell shape with a network of protein fillaments
uses energy from sunlight to make food molecules
site where lipid components of the cell membrane are assembled and where proteins are chemically modified
endoplasmic recticulum
modifies, soorts, and packages proteins and other materials from the endoplasmic recticulum
Golgi apparatus
What is a cell?
a unit of structure and function
What did Anton Leewenhoek look at?
looked at pond to see if microorganism in 1675 invented a simple "animolecules" microscope
What did Robert Hooke do in 1655?
saw cork in a slice and said they looked like a dead cell
What did Schlieden do in the middle 1800's?
was a botanist who discovered all plants are made of cells
What did Schwann discover?
zoologist who mdiscovered that all animals are made up of cells
What did Virchow discover?
all cells come from existing cells, completing the cell theory
What is a cell theory?
a fundimental concept of biology
When was the development of the "electron" micorscope?
in the 1960's to 1970's
TEM microscope-flat
SEM- 3d
Cells of prokaryotes have.....
...a cellular membrane boundary
have contents- cytoplasm
do not have nucleus
contains genetic material DNA
Cells of Eukaryotes have....
...have a cell membrane
have cytoplasmic contents
have a well defined nucleus
DNA in nucleus
substructures with functions in the cytoplasm called organelles
What is a ribosome?
small particles of RNA and protein found throughout the cytoplasm (proteins are assembled in ribosomes)
What is an endoplasmic recticulum?
the site where lipid components of the cell membrane are assembled, proteins and other materials are also exported from the cell
What is the golgi apparatas?
modify and package proteins for enzymes/ or special secretions
What is a lysosome?
small organelles filled with enbzymes(clean up)
What is a vacuole?
saclike structures that store materials such as water, salts, proteins and carbohydrates( storage) (found in a single cell organism)
Is DNA present in mitochondria? What is mitochondria?
Some DNA. Mitochondria are organelles that convert the chemical energy stored in food into compounds that are more convienient for the cell to use ( burns sugars)
Does every cell have to have mitochondria?
What is in a plant cell?
chloroplast- capture energy from sunlight and convert to chemical energy in a process called photosynthesis
cell wall- rigidity additional layer outside cell membrane
What is found in an animal cell?
cell membrane
cytoskeleton- filliments made of protein helps to support the cell
centriole- function for reproduction
What is a cell boundary?
thin flexible structure that surrounds a cell, provides structural support and protection, living structure that regulates the passing of particles in and out of the cell
What is diffusion?
small random movement of particles from an area of high concentration to an area of lower concentration until an equilibrium is reached
What is osmosis?
diffusion of water through a selectivley permeable mmembrane until an equilibrium is reached
Name some organisms that contain cell walls?
Cell membranes are made of how many layers of lipid membranes?
The cell memvrane is part _____ and part _____.
lipid and part protein
What is passive transport?
no cellular energy is used for these actions of processes
What is concentration?
a way in measuring how much solute is mixed with solvent, it refers to the ratio of solute to another
What does isotonic mean?
same strength
What does hypertonic mean?
above strength
What does hypotonic mean?
below strength
________ concluded that the genetic material of a bacteriophage is DNA
hershey and chase
________ concluded that DNA was the factor that caused one bacterium to transform into another
________ concluded that bacteria could be transformed from harmless to disease causing by an unknown factor
The structure of a DNA molecule can be described as a _______.
double helix
The structure of DNA was discovered by ____and ____.
Watson and Crick
During the DNA replication, the DNA molecule _______ into two strands.
At the end of DNA replication ________ new strands of DNA have been produced, giving a total of _____ strands of DNA.
New DNA is replicated in strands complementary to old DNA because production of new DNA follows the rules of ________.
base pairing
DNA and RNA are made up of ________ called______.
repeating monomers called nucleotide
What are genes?
coded messages made of DNA, a large complex molecule, DNA is composed of individual units called nucleotides, three of these units form a code
What is a DNA polymerase?
enzyme that cuts the DNA strand
What is a restrictive enzyme?
cuts DNA into portions
What is a genome?
" map of all the DNA" trait by trait
What is a chromosome?
condensed DNA
What is a gene?
a portion of DNA (polymer)
What is a thread?
codes for a trait
What is an exon?
" a segment" of DNA (1- side)
What is an intron?
a nonsense segment of DNA
What is a nucleotide?
the monomer