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60 Cards in this Set

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All cells have what to things in common?
Cell membrane and Cytoplasm
What is the function of the cell membrane?
seperates inside of cell from outside and is selectivley permeable
What is the stucture of the cell membrane?
Phospholipid bilayer with hydrophilic heads on both sides and hydrophobic tails in between
What is the cytoplasm?
fluid inside the cell in which all organelles are suspended
What is the difference between prokaryotes and eukaryotes?
Prokaryotes have no nucleus, membrane-bound organelles, and have different DNA
What is the prokaryote DNA structure?
circular, or plasmid
What is the eukaryote DNA structure?
linear, or chromatin
What is the function of the nucleus?
Controls the cell and contains DNA
What is DNA?
Genetic information, contains instructions for making proteins
What is chromatin?
DNA stored in Eukaryotes; linear DNA wrapped
What is the function of the nucleolus?
contains protein and RNA, and is the site of initial assembly of ribosomes
What is the structure of the nucleolus?
dense mass within the nucleus
What is the function of the nuclear envelope?
to seperate inside of nucleus from the rest of the cell and is selectivley permeable
What is the structure of the nuclear envelope?
Double membrane with nuclear pores through which material can pass in an out
What do the nuclear envelope and the mitochondria have in common?
double membranes
What is the cytoskeleton made of?
Microtubules and microfilaments
What is the function of microtubules?
Provide structure, move organelles in the cell, help with cell division in animal cells
What are centrioles?
a pair of microtubules that pull DNA apart during cellular reproduction
What do microtubules make up?
Other than centrioles, cilia nad flagella that move cell through its environment
What is the structure of microtubules?
hollow tubes of protein and 25nm in diameter
What is the function of microfilaments?
long, thin protein fibers 7nmn in daimeter (smaller than microtubules)
What is the function of ribosomes?
read RNA and physically join amino acids to create polypeptide chains - primary structure of proteins
What is the structure of ribosomes?
very small-.025nm-made of protein and RNA, 2 subunits (large-top and small-bottom)
Where are ribosomes found?
2 places: floating in cytoplasm and attatched to endoplasmic reticulum
What are the two types of Endoplasmic reticulum?
Rough and smooth
What is the fuction of the rough ER?
give newly assembled polypeptide chain secondary and tertiary structure (completes the proteins) and fold/modifies proteins destined for membrane or outside of the cell
What is the structure of the rough ER?
a series of membranes found around the nucleus with ribosomes studding its surface
What is the function of the smooth ER?
To assemble and modify lipids
What is the structure of the smooth ER?
a series of membranes surrounding the nucleus with no ribosomes on its surface
Why is the rough ER called "rough"?
Ribosomes stud its surface
What is the function of the Golgi Apparatus?
prepares and packages proteins before being sent to their final destinations
What is budding?
A process used by the golgi apparatus to create vesicles which transport materials
What is the sturcture of the golgi apparatus?
a stack of membranes which act as envlelopes for proteins through budding
What is the fuction of lysosomes?
remove debri from cell
What do lysomes contain?
contain enzymes which break down proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, etc
How do lysosomes remove debris from cells?
1. Protiens are tagged with ubiquitin
2. Lysosome breaks down tagged items to basic subunits-amino acids- which are used to create more proteins
What is the structure of lysosomes?
small membrane-bound organelle
What is the fuction of vacuoles?
to store material like wter, salts, and protiens in cells
What is the role of vacuoles in plants?
large vacuoles have a lot of pressure, take up almost the whole cell, and help support leaves/flowers
What is the role of vacuoles in animals?
small, responsible for transporting material throughout cell, aka vesicles
What are vesicles?
product of budding: small vacuoles, circular structures carrying cellular material
What is the structure of vacuoles in plants?
large fluid-filled sacs that ake up almost the whole cell
What is the structure of vacuoles in animals?
small fluid and cellular material filled sacs
What is the fuction of mitochondria?
to break down glucose into a form of material that can be used by the cell...ATP
What is the form of energy that can be used by the cell and why?
ATP is used by the cell because heat would disupt the goal of homeostasis
What is the process of converting glucose into ATP called?
cellular rrespiration
What is the stucture of the mitochondria?
double-membrane organelle, an outer and inner membrane, space between outer and inner membrane is cristae, and the space inside the inner membrane is the matrix
Where is glucose converted into ATP?
in the matrix
What is the function of chloroplasts?
only in plant cells, convert sunlight into energy through photosynthesis
What is the structure of chloroplasts?
double membrane organelle, inside the inner membrane is the stroma, with thylacoids, and granum (stacks of thylacoids)
What are granum?
stacks of thylacoids
Where does photosynthesis take place?
in the thylacoids
What do mitochondria and chloroplasts have?
their own DNA
Why do mitochondria and chloroplasts have their own DNA?
A theory proposed by Lynn Margulis, they were once prokaryotes taken up by eukaryotes
What evidence supports Lynn Margulis's theory?
double membranes-product of reverse budding, when the organism going inside takes a part of the outer membrane with it; own DNA passed on by mother, allow reproduction without being told by the nucleus
What is the function of the cell wall?
only in plant cells-provides additional support/protection
What is the structure of the cell wall?
outermost layer of plant cells, outside of cell membrane, made of cellulose
What is cellulose?
a tough carbohydrate fiber that makes up cell wall
What is the life of a protein?
Primary structure made by ribosome, sent into rough ER, secondary & tertiary structure, folded/ modified, go to the golgi apparatus, packaged, either sent to cell membrane or outside of cell-could be stored in vacuoles
How are ribosomes produced?
both parts are made, released, and then join