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46 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
atom
the smallest particle of an element that can exist either alone or in combination
activation energy
the minimum amount of energy required to convert a normal stable molecule into a reactive molecule
adhesion
the molecular attraction exerted between the surfaces of bodies in contact
amino aid
an amphoteric organic acid containing the amino group NH2
atomic numbers
an experimentally determined number characteristic of a chemical element that represents the number of protons in the nucleus which in a neutral atom equals the number of electrons outside the nucleus and that determines the place of the element in the periodic table
buffer
a substance capable in solution of neutralizing both acids and bases and thereby maintaining the original acidity or basicity of the solution;
capillary action
a physical effect caused by the interactions of a liquid with the walls of a thin tube
carbohydrates
any of various neutral compounds of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen (as sugars, starches, and celluloses) most of which are formed by green plants and which constitute a major class of animal foods
catalyst
a substance that enables a chemical reaction to proceed at a usually faster rate or under different conditions than otherwise possible
cohesion
molecular attraction by which the particles of a body are united throughout the mass
compound
something formed by a union of elements or parts; especially : a distinct substance formed by chemical union of two or more ingredients in definite proportion by weight
covalent bond
a chemical bond formed between atoms by the sharing of electrons
dehydration synthesis
a water molecule is lost, electrons are rearranged, and a new bond is formed between the subunits.
electron
an elementary particle consisting of a charge of negative electricity
element
the simplest principles of a subject of study
enzyme
any of numerous complex proteins that are produced by living cells and catalyze specific biochemical reactions at body temperatures
evaporative cooling
a system or process in which the heat is removed from an object by the evaporation of a liquid coolant; also, the process in which outside air is pre-cooled before passing through a space
heat of vaporization
the heat absorbed per unit mass of a given material at its boiling point that completely converts the material to a gas at the same temperature: equal to the heat of condensation.
hydrogen bond
a type of chemical bond in which a hydrogen atom that has a covalent link with one of the electronegative atoms (F, N, O) forms an electrostatic link with another electronegative atom in the same or another molecule.
hydrolysis
chemical decomposition in which a compound is split into other compounds by reacting with water.
hydrophilic
having a strong affinity for water.
hydrophobic
having little or no affinity for water.
inorganic
not having the structure or organization characteristic of living bodies.
insoluble
incapable of being dissolved
ion
an electrically charged atom or group of atoms formed by the loss or gain of one or more electrons, as a cation (positive ion), which is created by electron loss and is attracted to the cathode in electrolysis, or as an anion (negative ion), which is created by an electron gain and is attracted to the anode.
ionic bond
the electrostatic bond between two ions formed through the transfer of one or more electrons.
isotope
any of two or more forms of a chemical element, having the same number of protons in the nucleus, or the same atomic number, but having different numbers of neutrons in the nucleus, or different atomic weights.
lipid
lipids comprise the fats and other esters with analogous properties and constitute, with proteins and carbohydrates, the chief structural components of living cells.
macromolecule
a very large molecule, as a colloidal particle, protein, or esp. a polymer, composed of hundreds or thousands of atoms.
monomer
a molecule of low molecular weight capable of reacting with identical or different molecules of low molecular weight to form a polymer.
nutrient
containing or conveying nutriment, as solutions or vessels of the body.
nucleic acid
any of a group of long, linear macromolecules, either DNA or various types of RNA, that carry genetic information directing all cellular functions
nucleotide
any of a group of molecules that, when linked together, form the building blocks of DNA or RNA
organic
of or pertaining to an organ or the organs of an animal, plant, or fungus.
pH
A measure of the acidity or alkalinity of a solution, numerically equal to 7 for neutral solutions, increasing with increasing alkalinity and decreasing with increasing acidity. The pH scale commonly in use ranges from 0 to 14.
polarity
positive or negative character.
polymer
a compound of high molecular weight derived either by the addition of many smaller molecules, as polyethylene, or by the condensation of many smaller molecules with the elimination of water, alcohol, or the like, as nylon.
protein
the plant or animal tissue rich in such molecules, considered as a food source supplying essential amino acids to the body.
proton
a positively charged elementary particle that is a fundamental constituent of all atomic nuclei.
solute
the substance dissolved in a given solution.
solvent
having the power of dissolving; causing solution.
specific heat
the ratio of the thermal capacity of a substance to that of standard material.
starch
a white, tasteless, solid carbohydrate, (C6H10O5)n, occurring in the form of minute granules in the seeds, tubers, and other parts of plants, and forming an important constituent of rice, corn, wheat, beans, potatoes, and many other vegetable foods.
sugar
a member of the same class of carbohydrates, as lactose, glucose, or fructose.
surface tension
a liquid, tending to minimize the area of the surface, caused by asymmetries in the intermolecular forces between surface molecules.
water
a transparent, odorless, tasteless liquid