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44 Cards in this Set

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Galileo Galilei
In early 1600s, used 2 glass lenses to magnify the stars and was able to magnify small organisms.
Robert Hooke
In mid 1600s, coined the phrase "cell as he looked through a simple compound microscope, observing cork.
Antony van Leeuwenhoek
Late 1600s, given credit for developing first microscope.
Robert Brown
1820s, finds the nucleus.
Matthew Schleiden
1838, botanist who states the functional and organizational unit of a plant is the cell
Theodore Schwann
1839, zoologist who comes to same conclusion about animals as Schleiden about plants
Rudolf Virchow
1849, physiologist studies reproduction of cell and concludes that all cells come from preexising cells
light microscope
Uses the fact that when light hits air, it bends (refracts). Can magnify up to 1000x.
transmission electron microscope
doesn't use glass, light passes through vacuum. magnification up to 10,000x.
scanning electron microscope
speciment not sliced, dipped in reflective fluid. Can magnify 3 nm.
scanning tunneling electron microscope
tunnels into speciment to look inside
composition of bilipid layer
phospholipid, hydrophobic and hydrophilic, proteins and their roles, glyco chains, cholesterol. Everything contributes to semi-permiability.
passive transport
movement of molecules from [high] to [low]
diffusion
passive transport, molecular bombardment
osmosis
passive transport, water flows to dilute the [high] consentration of solutes
isotonic
same []
hypertonic
too much solute
hypotonic
too little solute
active transport
movement of molecules from [low] to [high]. cells need energy for this (ex. endo and exocytosis, sodium/potassium pump)
osmotic pressure
pressure caused by movement of water
creanation
shriveling because of hypertonic solution
plasmolysis
cell membrane shrinks inside cell wall because of hypertonic conditions
White/Black
White reflects all color, while black absorbs all color.
Equation of Photosynthesis
H20 + CO2 --> 02 + C6H12O6
How is ATP developed in the chloroplast during photosynthesis?
by separating negatives and positives, ATP-synthase makes ATP by make - and + go together
Chemiosmotic phosphorylation
transfer of ions across the membrane to prouduce energy
Rubisco carboxylase
runs the Calvin Cycle
How does carbon dioxide get into the Calvin cycle?
from the atmosphere by diffusion, passive transprt
Summary of Dark Rxn
1 PGAL + 1 PGAL = 1 Glucose (6-C)

For every 6CO2, the wheel spins 6x and one glucose is made.
How is activation energy supplied?
by ATP
What are the folds in the inner membrane of the mitochondria called?
cristae
Where does glycolysis take place? Aerobic respiration? Electron Transport?
glycolysis: cytoplasm

aerobic respiration: inner membrane of mitochondrion

electron transport: between layers of membrane of mitochondrion
creanation
shriveling because of hypertonic solution
plasmolysis
cell membrane shrinks inside cell wall because of hypertonic conditions
White/Black
White reflects all color, while black absorbs all color.
Equation of Photosynthesis
H20 + CO2 --> 02 + C6H12O6
How is ATP developed in the chloroplast during photosynthesis?
by separating negatives and positives, ATP-synthase makes ATP by make - and + go together
Chemiosmotic phosphorylation
transfer of ions across the membrane to prouduce energy
Rubisco carboxylase
runs the Calvin Cycle
How does carbon dioxide get into the Calvin cycle?
from the atmosphere by diffusion, passive transprt
Summary of Dark Rxn
1 PGAL + 1 PGAL = 1 Glucose (6-C)

For every 6CO2, the wheel spins 6x and one glucose is made.
How is activation energy supplied?
by ATP
What are the folds in the inner membrane of the mitochondria called?
cristae
Where does glycolysis take place? Aerobic respiration? Electron Transport?
glycolysis: cytoplasm

aerobic respiration: inner membrane of mitochondrion

electron transport: between layers of membrane of mitochondrion