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113 Cards in this Set

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gases in early earth (hydrogens and carbons 4)
hyrdrogen cyanide, hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide
gases in early earth #2
3
nitrogen, amonia, water, methane
earth age
4.6 billion
miller-urey filled with...
hydrogen, methane, amonia, water, electric sparks. equals amino acids
endosymbiotic theory
prokaryote communities to eukaryotes (mitochondria, part of it)
life appeared
3.8 billion
phases
precambrian, paleozoic, mesozoic, cenozoic
mesozoic 3
triassic, jurassic, cretaceous
phospholipid bilayer
cell membrane
eukaryotic cells
fungi, plants, animals, protist
bacilli
rod shaped
cocci
round
squigly
spirilla
golgi apparatus
package proteins
lysosomes
digestion of lipids
vacuoles
storage
mitochondria
power house
chloroplasts
sunlight to energy
endoplasmic recticulum
proteins modified
chromosomes
dna package
cilia
hairs
flagellum
tail
semipermeable
only some can get through
osmosis
diffusion of water high to low. some too big to pass through
diffusion
high to low to get equilibrium
active transport
low to high uses energy
carrier proteins
open and close to let in
hypotonic solution
solutes (things being dissolved) below concentration
hypertonic solution
solutes above concentration
isotonic
equal to
dna replication
untwist, unzip, free dna nucleotides w/ exposed bases
dna replication is semi...
semiconservative b/e half is kept
chromatid
half of a replicated chromosome
chromatin is
stretched out dna
prophase
spindles to centromeres, equator, cell membrane dissolves
anaphase
separate chromosomes
telophase
pinch nuclear envelopes
cytokinesis
2 genetically identical daughter cells
interphase
dna replicates
codon
3 dna bases
1 codon equals
1 amino acid
___ different types of aas in body
20
structure of dna
double helix
proteins...
fight diseases, chemical messengers, carry oxygen in the blood, structure, speed up chemical reactions
amino acid structure
amino group, alpha carbon, acid group, functional group
functional group...
changes and makes differnt from other aas
____ amino acids make a protein
50
________ hold nucleotides together
hydrogen bonds
_______ hold amino acids together
peptide bonds
humans have ___ pairs of chromosomes
23
dna has...
dioxyribose sugar, 2 strands, ATCG, can't leave nucleous
get aas from
food
function of proteins determined by...
sequence of aas, number of aas, and kinda of aas
_______make us different from other animals
proteins
_____ provides instructions for proteins
dna
proteins make ______
traits
protein
worker molocule that makes possible every activity in our body
base lines up with
sugar
enzymes are made of...
amino acids
transcription
dna to mrna and puts it out into the cytoplasm. attaches to ribosome
translation
trna picks up aa and brings to ribosome. leaves top/aa(threonine ect.) b/c linked by peptide bond
trna
opposite of mrna, same as dna
mrna
opposite of dna and trna
substrate
thing that's being acted on by the enzyme (salt)
active site
where the substrate connects to the enzyme
haploid (n)
gametes have 1/2 the amount f chromosomes (23)
diploid (2n)
body cells have 46 chromosomes
gametes
sperm and egg cells
make eggs and sperm
oocytes and spermocytes
to go from diploid to haploid
meiosis
sperm plus egg equals
diploid (23+23)
prophase 1
crossing over
metaphase 1
pairs line up
anaphase 1
total pairs pulled apart
telaphase 1
same
meosis first __ and then ___ daughter cells
2 and 4
homolougous chromosomes
same size shape and genes. different alleles
alleles
different forms of the same gene
chiasma
place where homologous chromosomes touch
tetrad
when 2 homolougous chromosomes touch
genetic variation
random assortment, crossing over, mutations
heterozygous
different alleles
monohybrid cross
following one gene
dihybrid
following 2 or more genes
incomplete
mixture of both (pink)
codominance
both alleles represented (tabby cat)
blood type is
codominant
sex linked traits
big difference in male or female, trait carried on the x chromosome from generation to generation
carrier
person who carries the gene but is not affected by it (heterozygous female)
diabetics lack
insulin
hemophiliacs lack
factor 8
gel electrophoresis
used for separating the dna strands in dna fingerprinting
plasmid
small piece of dna found in a bacteria cell (5 genes)
selective breeding, inbreeding
desired traits, same type
recombinant dna
combining dna from 2 different organisms
genetic engineering
manipulating dna for beneficial purposes
making insulin
add restriction enzyme to a mammal and a bacteria cell
making insulin 2
take out insulin gene and insert into the plasmid to make recombinant dna
making inslulin 3
reinsert into bacteria and have divide as usual
restriction enzyme
used to cut dna
extracting dna from cells
cut with restriction enzyme, put into aragose gel, gel electrophoresis
dna from cells 2
separate dna into single strands, create unique banding pattern
dna is is _______ charged
negatively
recombinant dna gets inside a plasmid by...
transformation
prokaryotes age, eukaryotes age
3.5 billion, 1.5 billion
3 kinds of rna
trna, rrna, mrna
rrna...
ribosomal rna
what factors effect the action of enzymes? 4
heat, # of enzymes, # of substrates, strength of bond
steps to cloning
body cell nucleous and egg ____. electric shock to fuse. clone to body cell
hybridization
2 organisms that are dissimilar to get best
mitochondrion looks
oval with squigles
e.r.
waves outside nucleous
chloroplast
oval with lines