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27 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
How blood enters and exists the kidney
renal arter --> afferent arterioles --> glomerulus --> efferent arterioles --> vasa recta --> renal vein
filtrate is isotonic with blood plasma
- nephron secretes substances such as acids, bases, and ions from intersitial fluid into the filtrate
- secretion maintains blood pH, K+ in blood, and nitrogenous waste in filtrate
- return to blood
- essential substance (glucose, salts, aa) and water are reabsorbed from the filtrate and returned to blood
- forms concentrated urine, which is hypertonic to the blood
selective permeability
- only in presence of ADH is the collecting duct permeable to H2O
- walls fo proximal tubule and descending limb of loop of Henle are permeable to water
- walls of lower ascending limb is permeable to salt only
walls permeabile to water
- proximal tubule
- descending limb of loop of Henle
walls permeable to salt only
- ascending limb of loop of Henle
Osmolarity gradient
- osmolarity inceases from cortex to inner medulla
- solutes contributing to gradient are urea and Na+ and Cl-
Urea movement
urea diffuses out of collecting duct, and it eventually reenters the nephron by diffusing into the ascending limb
Na+ Cl- movement
Na+ Cl- diffuse out of the lower half of the ascending limb, while upper half actively pumps out Na+ (Cl- follows)
Flow of filtrate
- filtrate enters Bowman's capsule and flows into the proximal convoluted tubule, where virtually all glucose, aa, and other molecules are reabsorbed (into blood) via active transport
- filtrate then flows down descending limb into renal medula, where there is an increasing ionic concentration in interstitial fluid, causing more water to diffuse out of nephron
- filtrate flows through ascending limb that's impermeable to water, then into distal convoluted tubule
- filtrate continues through collecting duct where water reabsorption is under hormonal ADH control
- hypertonic to blood
- highly concentrated in urea and other solutes
- produced in adrenal cortex
- stimulates reabsorption of Na+ from collecting duct and secretion of K+
Effect of Na+ reabsorption
- increasea water reabsorption, leading to rise in blood volume, and thus rise in blood pressure
ADH (antidiuretic hormone)
- formed in hypothalamus and stored in posterior pituitary
- acts directly on collecting duct, increasing its permeability to water
- high solute concentration in blood causes increased ADH secretion (low solute concentration reduces ADH)
- glucose to glycogen
- glycogen to glucose
- noncarbohydrates to glucose (gluconeogenesis)
- detoxification of toxins
storage of iron and vitamin B12
- destruction of old RBCs
- make bile
- make blood proteins
- defense against antigens
- beta-oxidation of fatty acids to ketons
- interconversion of carbohydrates, fates, and aa
- outermost epithelial later of skin
- composed of several layers
- below epidermis
- subdivided into layer of loose connective tissue
- below dermis
- composed of loose connective tissue
- lots of fat cells
- binds outer skin layers to body
Which of the following will most likely filter through glomerulous?

a. erythrocytes
b. monosaccharides
c. leukocytes
d. platelets
e. proteins
b. monosaccharides
Which region of the kidney has the lowest solue concentration?

a. nephron
b. cortex
c. medulla
d. pelvis
e. epithelia
c. medulla
Sequence through which blood flows through vesselsin the kidney.
renal artery, afferent afteriole, glomerulus, efferent arteriole, vasa recta, renal vein
In the nephron, aa enter the vasa recta via the process of:

a. filtration
b. secretion
c. excretion
d. reabsorption
e. osmoregulation
d. reabsorption
Which of the following is a mechanism of heat loss?

a. constriction of blood vessels in the skin
b. inhibition of antidiuretic hormone
c. inhibition of aldosterone
d. dilation of blood vessels in skin
d. dilation of blood vessels in the skin
Glucose reabsorption in the nephron occurs in the:

a. loop of Henle
b. distal tubule
c. proximal tubule
d. collecting duct
c. proximal tubule
All of the following are functions of the liver except:

a. conversion of glucose into glycogen
b. destruction of RBCs
c. storage of bile
d. detoxification of toxins
e. beta-oxidation of fatty acid
c. storage of bile
Urine is:

a. hypotonic to the blood
b. hypertonic to the blood
c. hypertonic to the filtrate
d. hypotonic to the vasa recta
e. isotonic to the interstitial fluid in the cortex
b. hypertonic to the blood