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45 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is the best circulating level of glucose?
75-100 mg percent
What is fuel in the brain?
glucose and ketone bodies
What is the fuel in the liver? and what is transported out?
glucose, amino acids, fatty acids
Transports out glucose from glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis and triglycerides and ketone bodies
What is the fuel in the muscle?
the fuel is glucose, fatty acids, lactate, ketone bodies, and branched chain amino acids
it transports out lactate and alanine and glutamine
What is the sparing effect?
The ability to use other fuels like ketone bodies instead of glucose for maintaining circulating levels of glucose
What provides glucose to our cells?
1) the diet from the gut provides external supplies
2) adipose and muscle tissues provide carbon sources for gluconeogenesis
3) liver and other tissues do glycogenolysis
4) sparing effect
What will suppress increased uptake of alanine by the liver?
What is the rate limiting enzyme often based on?
What is maintaining the blood glucose level in the overnight fast?
1) primarily the breakdown of glycogen by the liver
2) in addition to this, there is a small contribution from muscle, rbc, and adipose in regards to providing precursors for gluconeogenesis
How long can we use glycogenolysis to maintain blood glucose levels?
12-18 hours
In the short term fast, 1 to 3 days, what is the muscle cell doing?
Undergoing major proteolysis and losing 75-100 grams a day
Where are the majority of our calories?
triglyceride of the fat cell
How do we make alanine in the muscle cell?
by a transamination of pyruvate from the breakdown of the branched chain amino acids
What is the main amino acids released from the muscle cell?
alanine and glutamine
What is the rate limiting enzyme of the reverse of glycolysis in substrate 3?
PEP carboxykinase
What is the type of regulation of gluconeogensis?
Transcriptional regualation of PEP carboxykinase
What is the key allosteric regulator of gluconeogenesis?
Fructose 2,6 bisphosphate
What happens when fructose 2, 6 bisphosphate levels are high?
It binds to pfk 1 and activates it so glycolysis takes place and it binds to fructose 1, 6 bisphosphatase and inhibits it so gluconeogensis doesn't take place
What regulates fructose 2, 6 bisphosphate levels?
What is fat turned into because of glucagon?
1) glucose
2) ketone bodies
What is the fate of free fatty acids in the liver?
1) can be oxidized and turned into ketone bodies or 2) go to other tissues and bes used by beta oxidation as fuel
What is the fate of glycerol in the liver?
1) makes glucose
What enzyme does glucagone stimulate in the adipose tissue to break down triglycerides during the fasting state?
hormone sensitive lipase which is phosphorylated by protein kinase a
What gets fatty acids into the mitochondria?
The carnitine shuttle
What are the two ketones that are made?
Acetoacetate and B-hydoxybutyrate
What enzyme converts acetoacetate to acetoacetyl-coA in the tissues?
succinyl coA transferase
What is the glycerol converted to when it enters the tissue?
glycerol 3 phosphate
What does the brain have a good supply of in prolonged fast to use 50 percent of its energy as ketone bodies?
Succinyl coA transferase
What does the kidney do in prolonged fast?
1) Ketone resorption across the proximal tubules so you don't lose it
2) becomes a gluconeogenic tissue and is right up there with the liver as far as glucose production
What decreases in prolonged fasting?
proteolysis in the muscle tissue so there is a decline in alanine released
What are the two main things that happen in a prolonged fast?
1) blood glucose is stabilized
2) protein is conserved
How do ketone bodies stop muscle proteolysis?
probably by stimulating insulin release
What happens in the fed state in the liver?
1) cAMP levels are down
2) glucokinase levels are up
3) PFK II makes Fru 2, 6 bisphosphate
4) PFK I levels are up
5) Fructose 1, 6 bisphosphatase levels are down
6) Glycolysis is up and gluconeogenesis is down
7) Glc goes to citrate which goes to FA which goes to VLDL
8) glycogen is stored
What happens in the fed state in the adipocyte?
1) cAMP levels are down
2) lipoprotein lipase is up
3) GLUT 4 is up
4) store triglycerides
What happens in the fed state in the muscle?
1) protein synthesis is up
2) alanine output is down
3) proteolysis is down
What happens in the fast state in the liver?
1) cAMP levels are up
2) glucokinase leves are down
3) PFK II breaks Fructose 2,6 bisphosphate so that level is down
4) PFK I is down
5) Fructose 1, 6 bisphosphatase is up
6) glycolysis is down and gluconeogenesis is up
7) glyogenolysis is up
What happens in the fast state in the adipoctye?
1) cAMP levels are up
2) hormone sensitive lipase levels are up
3) FFA release is up
What happens in the fast state in muscle?
1) proteolysis is up
2) alanine output is up (liver gluconeogenesis)
3) but this only happens mainly in the early fasting state and changes in the late fasting state
Which enzyme takes the four carbon oxalacetate and converts it to PEP by removing CO2 and adding GTP?
PEP carboxykinase
What is the rate limiting enzyme of gluconeogenesis?
PEP carboxykinase
What do CAMP responsive genes have? (two things)
1) DNA sequences in their promotor called CRE which is TGACGTCA
2) a transcription factor that binds to CRE called CREB
What has to happen to CREB for it to be responsive?
It has to be phosphorylated
What happens in the activation of PEP carboxykinase in gluconeogenesis?
1) glucagon activates camp
2) camp activates PKA
3) PKA c subunit enters the nucleus of the cell and phosphorylates CREB
4) CREB binds CRE
5) CRE activates the gene to make more PEP carboxykinase
How does CREB-P increase gene transcription of PEP carboxykinase?
By creating a transcriptional platform with other proteins that influence RNA POL activity
What does CREB-P bind to that in turn binds to the basal transcriptional apparatus to get maximal transcription of PEP carboxykinase?