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36 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
chemical
any substances that has a defined composition (p. 4)
chemical reaction
the process by which one or more substances change to produce one or more different substances (p. 5, p. 260)

A rearrangement of the atoms that make up the reactant or reactants.
states of matter
the physical forms of matter, which are: solid, liquid, gas, and plasma (p. 6)
reactant
a substance or molecule that participates in a chemical reaction (p. 8)

(left side)
product
a substance that forms in a chemical reaction (p. 8)

(right side)
Are the following materials solid, liquid, or gas at room temperature?

milk oxygen
helium steel
granite gasoline
milk--liquid
helium--gas
granite--solid
oxygen--gas
steel--solid
gasoline--liquid
motion of particles in a solid
particles are held in a tightly rigid structure

they vibrate only slightly
motion of particles in a liquid
particles slip past one another

a liquid can flow and take the shape of its container
motion of particles in a gas
particles weakly attract one another and move independently at high speed

Gases will fill any container they occupy as their particles move apart
3 ways chemicals occur
*exist naturally (water, carbon dioxide)

*manufactured (polyethylene)

*taken from natural materials (aluminum)
What items around you are composed of chemicals?
Everything, food, air, clothes, water, paper, yourself
Why are chemical reactions necessary?
For living things to grow and for dead things to decay.
Examples of chemical reactions
--cook food
--take a photograph
--strike a match
--switch on a flashlight
--start a gasoline engine
What is all matter made up of?
particles

The type and arrangement of the particles in a sample of matter determine the properties of the matter.
What are the three states of matter?
solid, liquid, gas
Why does each state of matter have a particular volume and shape?
Results from the way their particles are arranged
Describe a solid.
fixed volume and shape

particles held tightly in a rigid structure

they vibrate only slightly
Describe a liquid
*fixed volume but not a fixed shape

*not held together strongly

particles slip past one another (like grains of sand)

Liquid can flow and take the shape of its container
Describe a gas
no fixed volume and no fixed shape

Particles weakly attract one another and move independently at high speed

Gases will fill any container they occupy as their particles move apart.
Plasma
The most visible matter in the universe.

A gas whose particles have broken apart and are charged.
Other states of matter
Bose-Einstein condensates at very low temperatures

neutron star
Name some changes of matter.
*ice cube melts
*bicycle's spokes rust
*red shirt fades
*water fogs a mirror
*milk sours
Name two categories of changes of matter
physical changes
+
chemical changes
physical changes
Changes in which the identity of a substance doesn't change

However, the arrangement, location, and speed of the particles that make up the substance may change.
examples of physical change
1) water goes from ice, to water, to steam--arrangement of particles change, but particles stay water particles

2) sugar dissolves in tea--sugar mixes in, but particles are still sugar

3) crushing a rock--particles separate but do not change identity
chemical changes
The identities of substances change and new substances form.
examples of chemical change
mercury (II) oxide --> mercury + oxygen

limestone --heat--> lime + carbon dioxide

carbon dioxide + sodium phenoxide --> sodium salicylate
the evolution of a gas

(evidence of chemical change)
acetic acid (in vinegar) + sodium hydrogen carbonate (baking soda) --> carbon dioxide

the solution bubbles or there is a change in odor
the formation of a precipitate
sodium sulfide + cadmium nitrate --> cadmium sulfide

a solid precipitate forms or
two clear solutions are mixed and become cloudy, a precipitate has formed
the release or absorption of energy
aluminum reacts with iron(III) oxide in the clay pot, energy is released as heat and light

a change in temperature or the giving off of light energy are signs of an energy transfer
A color change in the reaction system
Phenolphthalein + ammonia dissolved in water

A color change from colorless to pink occurs.

Look for a different color when two chemicals react.
What is the rearrangement of the reactant or reactants?
a chemical reaction
After a rearrangement of atoms in a chemical reaction where are those same atoms present?
In the product or products.
Are atoms destroyed or created during a chemical reaction?
No
Does mass change during a chemical reaction?
No
What are the 4 observations that suggest a chemical change is occurring?
1) formation of a gas
2) formation of a precipitate
3) release or absorption of energy
4) color change in the reaction system