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34 Cards in this Set

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Yoseph Arthur de Gobineau
19th C. aristocrat, "An Essay on the Inequalities of the Human Races," White Supremist, Aryan as the master race, anti-miscegenation, pessimist, his ideas led to the eugenics and racial hygiene.
Houston Stewart Chamberlain
19th C. British author, Anti-Semitic, Two Races: Aryans and Jews, Aryans being infected, praised by Hitler as "The Prophet of the Third Reich." his ideas led to eugenics and racial hygiene.
Operation Barbarossa
June 1941, Invasion of the Soviet Union, Went east because Nazis controlled France and respected Britain. Easterners seen as inferior: communist/bolshevist and Jews and for "living space"
Racial Hygiene and Eugenics
Galton (eugenics)
Spencer (social Darwinism)
Ploetz (German blood being poisoned)
Gobineau (white supremist)
Chamberlain (aryans being weakened)
T-4 (Jan. 1940)
Driving force behind the Holocaust. Jews seen as a weak race.
T-4
January 1940. From Racial Hygiene and Eugenic concerns. Euthanasia. 6 offices. Over 200,000 People Killed. Physically deformed, handicap, mental illness (including alcoholism).
Zyklon B
1941. Cyanide gas used by nazis in gas chambers for the Final Solution.
"Living Space"
The Nazis believed that there should be areas attributed to only one "race" and that the Aryans needed more "living space." This became one of the Nazi's chief objectives and shaped their foreign policy; the Nazis believed they could gain more space by conquering and colonizing the East (Operation Barbaross, June 1941)
Zobibor/Sobibor
Polish camp part of Aktion Reinhardt. 250,000 Jews/Gypsies killed. October 1943--half of the 600 inmates rebelled and killed 11 guards, upon fleeing most were shot and killed by land mines. only 50 escapees survived the war. Jewish Resistance.
S.S. Einsatzgruppen
Reformed in May 1939 for the invasion of Poland. Headed by Heydrich and part of the S.S. Had their own courts. Police-like death squad: Jews, Gypsies, Commissars, political adversaries. Killed over a million people. (Babi Yar, September 1941). Jager Report summarized their massacres.
Gestapo
Secret police. hunted all enemies of the state. obtained intelligence. under S.S. control.
Kripo
Non-uniformed detectives. concerned with serious domestic crimes (rape/murder/arson)
Kapo
Inmate Prison Guards. Given more privileges. Given Dirty Work. Tasks: transporting gassed victims to ovens, cleaning gas chambers, removing teeth, shaving heads
Madagascar
May 1940. Relocation of Jews to Madagascar colony. Failed due to the British Navy and the creation of Jewish Ghettos and Camps in Poland.
Sonderkommandos
Nazi Death Camp prisoner forced to aid in the killing process. Given special privileges. disposed of bodies.
Kristallnacht
"Night of Broken Glass" Nov. 9-10, 1938, Germany and Austria, Massive destruction of Jewish Property, glass litered the streets, 100 Jews murdered, 30,000 Jews arrested, 1,574 synagogues destroyed,
Protective Custody
1933. Gestapo could imprison people without judicial proceedings.
Haskalah
Late-18th C. Means Enlightenment. Eastern Jews form orthodox Judaism and Hasidic Movement. Western Jews assimilate and adopt Enlightenment ideals.
Dreyfus Affair
1894. Rise in anti-semitism. Alfred Dreyfus (Jewish) was accused and convicted of treason based on little evidence. Intellectual outcry demanding his release/Emile Zola. Later pardoned and readmitted into army. His injustice influenzed Theodor Hertzl who founded Zionism.
Diaspora
588 B.C.E. and 137 C.E. Romans conquered Palestine and Jews moved to the four corners of the Roman Empire (Germany, Spain, Mediterranean...)
Death Marches
1944-45. b. Forced march of tens of thousands of prisoners from the concentration camps near the advancing Eastern Front towards German. Infamous march: Auschwitz to Germany (Jan 1945).
Reinhard Heydrich
Chief of the Reich Main Security Office. Chaired the Wannsee Conference. One of the architects of the Final Solution.
Heinrich Himmler
1936 he became the chief of all police forces (reichsfuhrer). Headed both the state (police) and the party (nazi). Leading organizer of the Holocaust. In charge of the Einsatzgruppen and concentration camps.
Adolf Eichmann
Senior storm unit leader. In charge of the transportion of Jews to the concentration camps. Responsible for the logistics of the Holocaust.
Yoseph Goebbels
Public Enlightenment and Propaganda. Took over press and forced a censorship. He approved of all media.
"Strength Through Joy"
Recreation programs available to all Germans. Aimed towards lower income groups/working class. Aimed to abolish social/class barriers. Mass affordable tourism. Volkswagen.
Dachau
First Nazi concentration camp made in 1941. Became the prototype for other concentration camps. Held over 200,000 prisoners.
Gerhard Riegner Report
August 1942. Riegner recieved plans for the Final Solution and approached the American Consulate in Geneva. His report was sent to Rabbi Wise.
Rabbi Wise Press Conference
Wise was a leading figure in over a dozen Jewish organizations. Influential and well-respected. Recieved the Riegner Report in August 1942. Held a press conference in Nov 1942. Spent three years urging the U.S. government to intervene.
Commissar Order
Given by Hitler in June 1941, prior to Operation Barbarossa. Allowed for the immediate shooting captured Soviet political officer.
Intentionalist
Historiographical perception that Hilter intended to kill all Jews.
Functionalist
Historiographical perception that the final solution rose from local problems. Also, Hitler wasn't as important (weak dictator). There was no plan until 1941. The government was messy. Notable functionalist was Raul Hilberg.
Raul Hilberg
Functionalist. "Destruction of the European Jews". Made three divisions of people: Victims, Perpetrators, Bystandereds.
The Protocols of the Elders of Zion
Conspiracy theory that the Jews were taking over the world. Used as anti-semitic propagand.
Nuremberg Race Laws
1935. Jews banded from professional jobs. Citizenship determined by German blood.