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66 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
holistic
Assumes interrelationships among the parts. (society as a "whole")
Prehistoric Anthropology
prior to writing
ethnolinguistics
Analyzes the relationship between a language and culture.
sociolinguistics
Analyzes the relationship between language and culture with a focus on how people speak in social contexts
Use Value
stuff produced within family and has little or no value outside of family.
Exchange Value
stuff produced to have value outside family.
Paleoanthropology
looking at human evolution through skeletons.
enthnography
a written description of ONE culture
ethnology
the comparative study of cultures with the aim of presenting analytical generalizations about human culture.
brideswealth
where valuable gifts are given by the groom's kin to the bride's kin.
dowry
where valuable gifts are given by the bride's kin to the groom's kin.
dowry death
killing a bride to get another dowry from a new marriage.
clines
basically means "race"
cultural relativism
idea that a culture must be viewed and evaluated within the context of that culture.
postmodernism
a theoretical perspective that applies a humanistic approach to ethnography with a focus on individuals and their voices.
rapport
a harmonious relationship
Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis
language influences people's perception of things.
subculture
e.g. Korean Americans
microculture
e.g. people who play starcraft
biophilia
connection to non-humans
animism
religion linked with connection to non-human things
hegemony
means "domination"
Eskimo science
after years and years of doing something, people come up with methods and rules.
contagious magic
a physical object is connected to something "magical"
Imitative Magic
resemblance to something with influence (e.g. voodoo doll)
Dependency Theory
make 3rd world world societies be dependent on wealthy nations (wealthy nations benefit).
World Systems Theory
multi-national corporations use underdeveloped societies as a means of labor (benefits corporations)
Modernization Theory
bring industry to savages (white man's burden)
Hawthorne Effect
presence of a researcher affects behavior.
distortion
seeing what you want even when it's not there.
Reflexive Anthropology
personal perspectives and reactions of the fieldworker while immersed in the field situation.
proxemics
how much social space people are used to.
carrying capacity
the maximum population that a habitat can sustain
kinesics
use of body to commuicate
technology
the knowledge, tools, ad skills used by humans to manipulate their environment.
psychological functionalism
individual needs
structural functionalism
societal needs
Yanomamo
tribe near amazon river in south america
Tylor & Morgan
anthropologists who studied unilinear cultural evolution
unilinear cultural evolution
S avage
B arbarian
C ivilized
Ruth Benedict
biggest proponent of cultural relativism (look at society from that society's perspective)
consanguineal relatives
relatives through blood
affinal kin
relatives through marriage
cross cousin
father's sister's children or mother's brother's children
emic
insider perspective
etic
outsider perspective
code switching
same as sociolinguistics -- talking differently in different social contexts.
foraging
hunting and gathering
horticulture
crop production without preparation
pastoralism
herding
agriculture
intensive and continuous; controlling environment.
Concept: Types of Societies
B ands
T ribes
C hiefdoms
S tates
Franz Boas
started the first ph.d. program.
genealogical method
the triangle and circle kinship tree.
sex
the biological aspect of being female, male, or other, assigned at birth based on external genitalia.
gender
the sociocultural construct of masculine and feminine roles and the qualities assigned to these roles
gender role
the tasks and behaviors assigned by a culture to each sex.
phonetics
classification of speech sounds
phonemes
individual sound (letter)
morpheme
smallest combination of sound that carries a meaning.
parallel cousin
father's brother's children or mother's sister's children
Concept: Functions of Religion
1. Renders the Mysterious Intelligible.
2. Deal w/ Trials & Tribulation
3. Maintain social order.
Concept: Language and Gender
Men speak with a more dominating tone while women speak with a more intimate tone. Also, some terms such as mailman are gender specific.
Iroquois kinship terminology
calls mother and mother's sisters the same (one or more mother), same with father and father's brothers.
Hawaiian kinship terminology
generational system, calls everyone of the same gender in a generation the same name.
Inuit kinship terminology
exactly like American kinship terminology.