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23 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
HIV-1 is phylogenetically divided into three groups. What are they? Which is the most prevelant?
1. M - most prevelant
2. N
3. O
Where is HIV-2 mainly seen? What is different about the course of the disease in HIV-2?
1. West Africa
2. Progression to AIDS takes 30 years
What is unique about SIVs in their original African hosts?
They do not cause disease, but they do cause disease if they are transferred to non- African apes.
When was AIDS orginally in the US?
When is the estimated first infection of HIV?
1930 +/- 10 years
What is the cross-species jump of infectious agents from animals to humans called?
What is one theory of how HIV disease was introduced to Africa?
Polio vaccines given to Africans that were contaminated with SIV.
What was one virus that showed up in the polio vaccines?
What must a cell express to be infected with HIV?
1. CD4
2. CCR5 or CXCR4
What is the function of CD4 in the infective process of HIV?
CD4 opens the envelope of the virus
What is the preferential cell type for replication of HIV?
Activated memory CD4+ T cells in GALT
During the first three weeks of infection HIV primaryly replicates where?
How long does the acute phase in HIV last?
1-2 months
When does the AIDS Related Complex stage occur?
CD4+ T Cell count drops below 500
At what point do normally controlled viruses start causing infections in AIDS?
Below 200
What is the most frequently done correlate of HIV disease?
CD4+ T Cell Count
What is in the HAART cocktail?
Two different nucleoside analogues and a protease inhibitor.
What is the new view of HIV pathogenesis?
The damage done to your memory T cells during the first three weeks of infection determine how fast your disease will progress.
What causes most of the death of CD4 T cells in HIV?
Over stimulation due to the loss of T Regulatory cells. Cell lyses due due to viral infection is very uncommon.
What are two different methods of viral escape?
1. Escape by changing the epitope that viral antibodies bind to.
2. Escape by changing the glycan shield that causes steric hinderance of the viral epitope that antibodies bind to.
What is intra-host HIV evolution driven by?
Continual immune-driven selection.
How many new virions are produced in an untreated individual daily?
10^10 to 10^12
What are three strategies for HIV vaccines?
1. Induce cellular immunity
2. Induce humoral immunity
3. Induce mucosal immunity