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34 Cards in this Set

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What does AIDS stand for and when was the term first coined?
Acquired Immunodeficiency syndrome, 1981
In ______, a common antibody was identified in clients with AIDS and in _______, HIV was isolated.
1983, 1984
True or False. According to the CDC AIDS effects nearly 7x more African-Americans and 3x more Hispanics than whites.
True
Rapid increase in HIV case in women is of special concern and have increased from 7% in 1985 to 23% in 2000. How were the majority of these women infected?
75% of women infected were infected through heterosexual contact.
Where is the highest incidence of AIDS found? What other countries have high incidences of AIDS?
highest: 70% of those infeced with HIV or AIDS live in Sub-Saharan Africa Others: South & Southeast Asia (16%), the U.S, Western Europe, South America and Canada.
What is HIV called a retrovirus?
This means that it carries its genetic information in RNA
After HIV enters the body which cells does it infect?
Lymphocytes which have the CD4 antigen (called "CD4" or Helper T Lymphocytes)
What is reverse transcriptase and what does HIV use it for?
This is an enzyme which HIV uses to convert RNA to DNA
After the viral DNA is integrated into the host cells DNA it continues to be duplicated. New viruses are made. HIV replication ultimately ends in what?
Killing of the CD4 T cell when copies of the HIV are released into the bloodstream.
What is seroconversion and when does it occur?
The point at which an infected person converts from being negative for HIV antibodies in the blood to being postive and typically occurs within 1-6 months after exposure.
What do Helper T cells do?
They play a vital role in immune system function, directing cell-mediated immune activity and influencing the phagocytic activity of monocytes and macrophages, among other things.
What T-Cell count is concidered a diagnosis of AIDS? What is a normal T cell count?
diagnosis is based on T cell count of <200/mm3 and a normal count is >1000/mm3
What is the primary infection phase and what are its symptoms?
An acute phase occuring within days to weeks after exposure to HIV and presents with mononucleosis-like symptoms such as fever, sore throat, headache, rash, lymphadenopathy, etc.
What is the second phase of HIV infection, when does it occur and what are the symptoms?
The second phase is called chronic asymptomatic or latency phase and can last from 8-10 years. The virus is present, can be transmited to others but has few or no symptoms
What is the thrid phase of HIV infection?
Overt AIDS with an increase in opportunistic infections, <200 CD4 count. Without therapy this phase can lead to death within 2-3 years.
What are 5 common tests used for diagnosis of HIV?
ELISA, Western blot antibody testing, HIV viral load tests, CBC, CD4 cell count
with a viral load test, what amount of HIV copies /ml indicates a need for treatment?
>5000-10000 copies/ml
______ ________ ________ is the most common cause of mental status changes for clients with HIV infection.
AIDS Dementia Complex
What are the symptoms of AIDS Dementia Complex?
Fluctuating memory loss, confusion, difficulty concentrating, lethargy, and diminished motor speed, ataxia, tremors, spasticity, incontinence, and paraplegia.
What are some other CNS effects besides AIDS Dementia Complex that affect those inflicted with AIDS?
Toxoplasmosis, Non-Hodgkins Lymphoma, Cryptococcal, meningitis, and CMV
What are two common respiratory infections associated with AIDS?
Pneumocystis Carinii Pneumonia and Tuberculosis
What is PCP and what percent of AIDS pts develope it?
75-80% develope pneumocystis carinii pneumonia which is caused by a common fungus that is not pathogenic in pts with intact immune sys.
What are two secondary cancers associated with AIDS?
Kaposi's Sarcoma and Lymphomas
What is Kaposis Sarcoma?
tumor of endothelial cells lining small blood vessels and presents as vascular macules, papules or violet lesions affecting the skin and viscera
What are the two most common lymphomas associated with AIDS?
Non-hodgkins lymphoma and primary lymphoma of the brain
What are the two primary purposes of medications used to treat AIDS?
To suppress the infection itself and to treat opportunistic infections
What is HAART?
Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy: combo of three or four antiretroviral drugs (cocktail)
What is the purpose of HAART?
To suppress the HIV infection and reduce the incidence of drug resistance.
What is NRTI and how does it work in suppressing HIV?
Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors: inhibits the action of viral reverse transcriptase or in other words it "messes up the message."
What are 3 examples of NRTI?
Zidovudine (AZT), Didanosine (DDI), Zalcitabine (DDC)
What are some example of protease inhibitors?
Invirase, Norvir, Viracept, Kaletra
What are Nonnucleoside Reverse Transcriptase inhibitors?
drugs used in combo with NRTI's and protease inhibitors which actually attack the enzymes themselves.
How does HAART prevent drug resistant strains of HIV?
HIV frequently mutates creating drug resistance strains, however each different drug works to stop HIV replication at a different point or location during replication thus reducing the chance for mutation.
How do protease inhibitors work to suppress HIV replication?
They interrupt HIV replication at a later stage in its life cycle by interfering with the enzyme HIV protease which cause HIV particles to become structurally disorganized and noninfectious.