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15 Cards in this Set

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HIV
HIV
Identify qualitative and quantitative defects of the CD4 cell population as the primary cause of the immunodeficiency seen in HIV infection
Quantitative: with increasing duration of infection, the number of CD4 lymphocytes falls. Qualitative: defects in CD4 responsiveness induced by HIV
Discuss how HIV affects macrophages and the humoral immune response contributes to clinical disease
disordered CD4 lymphocyte fx lead to humeral depression of B cell responses to new antigen challenges. Macrophages act as reservoir for HIV & disseminate into organ systems.
Identify the most common ways in which HIV is transmitted in the United States
Sexual, needle sharing, mom to child, contaminated blood products, nosocomial infections
Describe usage of ELISA antibody tests for screening for HIV infection, the role of Western blot assay as the specific confirmatory test, and the absolute CD4 lymphocyte count for prognosis and therapy* decisions
Western blot used to confirm HIV since some ELISA has false positives. Absolute CD4 lymphocyte count used for Prognosis and therapy decisions
What labs should you obtain for a newly diagnosed person with HIV
Confirmation of HIV seropositivity, CD4 count & %, HIV mRNA (viral load), UA, CBC, CXR, Toxoplasma, syphilis, HEP, PPD, G6PD screen, other STD testing
Describe the role of plasma HIV-1 RNA levels in the management of HIV infection
Most prevalent in central Africa, US, Europe, and Australia, Type of HIV (other is HIV-2)
Name some complications and sequelae of HIV-related infections and neoplasms
Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP), TB, atypical mycobacteria infection, CNS disease, Oral hairy leukoplakia, candidiasis, GI, Anemia, Skin manifestations, CMV retinitis manifestations
Describe some of the CNS disorders that may be seen in HIV pt's
toxoplasmosis, cryptococcal meningitis, AIDS dementia complex, etc
What cells are principally infected and what is it's function
CD4 (helper-inducer) lymphocyte, which directs many other cells in the immune network
What happens once the latent state is extablished
integration of the HIV genome into the cell’s genome
In simple terms, what is HIV
The hallmark of symptomatic HIV infection is immunodeficiency caused by continuing viral replication.
What cells does HIV infect
infects all cells expressing the T4 (CD4) antigen, which HIV uses to attach to the cell.
What receptors are important for viral entry into the cell
Chemokine receptors (CCR5 and CXCR4)
Once HIV enters a cell, what does it do
HIV can replicate and cause cell fusion or death