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86 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the five themes of geography?
1. Location
2. Place
3. Interaction Between People and their Environment
4. Movement
5. Region
Geography
(definition)
the study of people and their envirionment
relative location
(definition)
the location of one place compared to the location of another
physical characteristic
(definition)
the landforms, climate, soil, and animal life of a place
adaptation
(defintion)
changing to better deal with your environment
imports
(definition)
goods brought into a country
latitude
measure distances north/south of the equator
absolute location
location based on latitude andn longitude points
human characteristics
people's way of life - activities, means of transportation, religion, and languages
hidden costs
like pollution and global warming
exports
goods sent to markets outside of a country
prime meridian
central line of longitude
equator
central line of latitude
migration
the movement of people and ideas
interdependence
the dependence on countries for goods, resources, and knowledge from other parts of the world
What is the difference between a globe and a map?
a globe is spherical and a map is a flat, distorted representation of the Earth
what is the difference between climate and weather?
climate is the average weather of an area, and weather can change on a daily basis
what are the four major landforms?
1. Mountains
2. Hills
3. Plains
4. plateaus
What are the three factors that affect climate?
1. Latitude
2. elevation
3. nearness to waterbodies
What are the seven elements of culture?
1. social organization
2. language
3. religion
4. arts and literature
5. customs and traditions
6. forms of government
7. economic systems
culture(definition)
all the things that make up a people's entire way of life
patriarchal
a family in which the oldest male is in charge
monotheism
beleif in one god
athiest
beleif that there is no god or afterlife
dictatorship
where a person or groups holds power by force
market economy
businesses or industries produce and sell their own goods.
nuclear family
husband, wife, and children
matriarchal
family where the oldest female is in charge
polytheism
the beleif in many gods
democracy
the people have the power
surplus
an excess in food/goods
command economy
the government controls what goods are produced
extended family
many generations living in one household
social mobility
the ability to move up or down on the social/economic ladder
agnostic
someone who doubts the existence of god
republic
where people elect people to represent them
traditional economy
people produce most of what they need to survive - hunting, farming. they trade surpluses with others
mixed economy
the government controls a little, but mostly businesses have control over what they produce
what are the causes of cultural change?
1. technology
2. changing environment
3. new ideas
4. diffusion
what are examples of subcultures within our society?
religious groups, social classes
what is the difference between ethonocentrism and racism?
ethnocentrism is thinking that your culture is superior, racism is judging people before you know them because of their ethnicity.
What were the acomplishments of the Stone Age?
-they made stone tools
-learned how to control fire
-developed a language
what were the accomplishments of the ice age?
-they made warm clothing out of animal skins
what were the accomplishments of the first agricultural revolution?
-they learned to farm and domesticate animals
-people could settle down in communities
what were the accomplishments of the first civilizations?
-populations grew and they settled into river valley communities
-developed organized governments, complex religion, specialized jobs, social classes, and ways of keeping records
what were the accomplishments of roman and greek civilizations?
-rome controlled the Mediterranean
-china controlled much of Asia and the Middle East
How did Islam spread?
-trade fourished from India and China to the Middle East and parts of Africa
-they blended the learnings of earlier civilizations together - cultural diffusion
Where were the Aztec and Incan Empires?
-Aztecs in Mexico
-Incas in the Andes in South America
-highly advanced civilations
How was Europe during the Middle Ages?
-less developed than China, India, and Africa
-on the edge of trade routes
-rulers of small kingdoms fought with eachother
archeologist
scientists who study the artifacts left behind by ancient peoples
nomads
hunting people who traveled with their supply of food
civilization
a highly organized group of people with their own langrage and ways of living
pictographs
pictures to keep track of numbers and stories
domesticate
to tame animals
artisans
skilled craftsworkers
what were the acheivements of the Renaissance?
-many advances in technology
-started to use money instead of trading
what the acheivements of the Age of Exploration?
-Columbus found America
-Spain, Portugal, England and France built large empires
What were the acheivements of the Second Agricultural Revolution?
-European farmers learned of new crops from the Americas
-new farming machines were developed
-surpluses lead to population growth and urbanization
What were the achievements of the Industrial Revolution?
-Machines replaced handtoold. Steam and electricity took the place of animal and human power
-factories developed
-many countries became democratic and allowed their male citizens to vote
-developed new transportaion and the telephone
What happened in the Age of Imperialism?
-the Industrial revolution spurred the demand for new materials, and Europeans nations competed for control over them
-changed power relationships around the world, Europeans power were getting stronger
-a lot of westernization in Europe
-India adopted railroads and the idea of democratic government
What happened in the Cold War?
-an arms race between the US and the Soviet Union
-war between US and communist countries to stop communist rebels in Vietnam
-ended in 1990s witht the collapse of the Soviet Union
Vasco de Gama
found water route around Africa to India
urbanization
growth of cities
imperialism
the control by one country of the political, economic, or cultural life of another country or region
westernization
adoption of western culture
superpowers
United States and the Soviet Union
capital
money that can be invested in business venturesfor the purpose of making a profit
suffrage
the right to vote
nationalism
pride and loyalty to one's country
entrepeneurs
people who set up businesses in order to make a profit
What are the challenges facing developing nations?
-have a lot of debt
-to much population growth
-a lot of illiteracy and uneducated people
What are the goals of developing nations?
-moderization
-to get political stability
-to get economic diversity
-education and services
economic diversity
a country producing a wide variety of goods
literacy
being able to read and write
interest rates
when a country borrows money, the lender charges intersts, which can lead to debt
population density
the average number of people living in an area of specific size
cash crops
cotton, rice, boffee, sugar
independence
don't have to depend on other nations for your well-being
tariff
a tax onn an imported good
modernization
set up stable governments and produce a high level of goods and services
privitization
selling state-owned industries to private investors
debt
owing money
what are refugees?
someone escaping their country because of poverty, wat, or harsh governments
why is there so much illegal drug trade?
there are a lot of poor people and they can make more money selling crops for drugs than growing food
World Health Organization
helps to wipe out deadly diseases
Helskini Agreement
for human rights, mor than 35 nations have signed it