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53 Cards in this Set

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bematistae
"steppers" who measured distance by the steps they took
Stonehenge
a monument found in the south of what is now Britain, made of huge stones (or megaliths), arranged in a circular pattern
Nubia
an ancient African kingdom, south of Egypt
extended family
nuclear family plus the families of the children when they grow up (cousins, aunts, uncles, grandparents)
Vedas
a collection of sacred poems from what is now the country of India
kitchen midden
a rubbish heap, including artifacts and bones, left in a settlement by people of the past
nuclear family
mother, father, siblings
radiocarbon dating
a method for determining the age of once-living things, based on the fact that their radioactive carbon content decays at a regular rate
alternative family
individuals who live together for economic, political, social, or religious reasons (may or may not be related)
Thucydides
471 - 400 B.C., Greek historian
astrolabe
instrument used to help sight positions of the sun and stars
Ptolemy, Claudius
100s B.C. Greek geographer, astronomer, and author of Guide to Geography
topography
the physical features of a region, such as mountains, plains, and rivers
megalith
a very large stone used in various prehistoric buildings or monuments
Icarus
Icarus was a character in a Greek myth. His father made him wings of wax, but he flew to close to the sun and the wings melted.
archaeology
the systematic recovery and study of tools, graves, buildings, pottery, and other remains of past human life and culture
Priscus
Roman writer and historian
archaeological record
artifacts, ruins, bones, and fossils
cartographer
a mapmaker
scientific dating
dating ancient objects by analyzing them in a laboratory
Attila
king of the Huns from about 433 - 453
Eratosthenes
200s B.C., Greek mathematician who used a gnomon to figure the earth's circumference
culture
the attitudes, beliefs, customs, traditions, art, and achievements of a society that are passed from one generation to another
Pliny the Younger
Roman writer and governor of Asia Minor
diffusion
the spread of ideas, values, and inventions from one culture to another
primary source
information about events recorded at the time of those events
climate
the average weather conditions in an area over a long period of time, especially temperature, precipitation, and wind
Ptolemy
c. 367 - 283 B.C., general of Alexander the Great who ruled Egypt after Alexander's death
Pliny the Elder
Roman scholar
fossil
the remains or imprint of a plant or animal from a past geological age
Seneca
a Roman writer who lived at about 4 B.C. to A.D. 65
amphorae
pottery containers filled with wine and olive oil (from ancient Rome)
Plato
Greek philosopher and student of socrates (c. 427 - 347 B.C.)
Faxian
A.D. 400s, Chinese Buddhist monk who wrote about travels to India
gnomon
blade that stands upright on a sundial
dendochronology
tree-ring counting, the oldest form of scientific dating
deforestation
the process of clearing away trees or forests
stratigraphy
the study of the remains that are found in various layers of soil and rock
monsoon
a wind system affecting the climate of India and southern Asia; reverses direction seasonally, producing a wet season and a dry season
excavation
in archaeology, the systematic digging of an area of ground to recover the archaeological record
Strabo
1st century Roman historian and author of Geography
prehistory
the history of humans before the development of writing
Hippalus
1st century Greek who discovered shorter trade route to India (c. A.D. 37) by sailing directly across the Arabic Sea
Homer
Greek epic poet and author of the Iliad and the Odyssey (c. 700 B.C.)
latitude
the angular distance north or south of the earth's equator, measured in degrees along a meridian, as on a map or globe
artifact
an object made by humans that is of archaeological or historical interest
circumference
the boundary line of a figure, area, or object
oral tradition
the legends, myths, and beliefs that a culture passes from generation to generation by word of mouth
Tutankhamen
Egyptian pharaoh whose tomb yielded important archaeological finds (d. 1352 B.C.)
Hanno
Carthaginian commander who led voyage to west coast of Africa C. 480 B.C.
secondary source
information about events recorded after those events by people who have studied the primary sources
Herodotus
400s B.C. Greek historian
sarcophagus
stone coffin (sometimes refers to any coffin)