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50 Cards in this Set

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A 14th centruy English quadrant used to determine latitude at sea. mariners aligned sights on the right with the polestar, then noted where the plumb line hit the scale on the rounded edge.
became the main vessels of the explorers. it equipped them with triangular lateen sails, borrowed from Arab predecessors.
John Cabot
commissioned by king henry vii of england to explore the north atlantic for a passage to the orient. he was an italian. he had a small ship called the matthew with a crew of only 18 to 29 men. he made a land fall in what the england would later call "new foundland"
a Florentine, send in 1524, by King Francis I of france to find a route through N America to Asia. he failed, but in the course of his search he explored the atlantic coast from the carolinas up as far as Nova Scotia.
Amerigo Vespucci:
a wealthy and well-connected florentive businessman took an interest in geography and navigation. "Amerige, the land of Amerigo or america."
Ponce de leon:
in 1513 he explored the coast of florida
mesoamerican people who were conquered by the spanish under Hernando Cortes in 1519-28
marched into new mexico and ventured far north as modern day kansas in 1540 and 1541
St. Augustine:
in 1565, the spanish founded a post here in america mainly to protect the route of the treasure ships that carried vast cargoes of precious metals from peru and mexico to spain. by 1600, it only remained as a monument to menendez's failed dream.
french protestants who had broken away from the catholic church. founded a tightly goverened community under God's "saints", that is, those He knew would be saved and so were predestined for salvation.
the belief that individuals fate is in the hands of God, who could give or withhold saving grace for reasons beyond human understanding or control.
Sir Frances Drake:
one of the greatest english raiders, a man who was for all practical purposes a pirate. he seized spanish treasures and plundered spanish settlements.
Richard Hakluyt:
an english geographer, historian, and enthusiast for overseas expansion. he assumed that england's american plantations would provide a refuge for protestants "from all parts of the world."
off North Carolina. the lost city.
wre willing to go to the indians and share their ways of life, risking their own lives in the process, and did not insist that the indians entirely conform the french "civilization"
Peter Stuyvesant:
became director in 1647, he found the New Netherlands dilapidated and the occupants notable mainly for their persistent drunkenness, which was facilitated by the presence of no less than 17 tap houses.
John Smith:
a colonist and future leader of the colony. 1st successful leader of the virginia colony, he mapped the new england coast during a voyage in 1614.
unifying theme that keeps england in control. there was no doubt that the english people in america were part of the english colonies (govt). A self sufficient empire that wouldn't be influenced by things going on in the world. Colonies were seen as a source of raw materials which were turned into finished goods and then sold to the colonies.
weren't permanent.
vikings-newfoundland around 1000 ad. Leif Ericsson.
found slaves, east to asia, africa (primary influence), some migrated to brazil (settled)
Reasons the Europeans came:
1420-1620:Age of Renaissance
-spices, silks, perfumes
columbus: he was able to keep his crew from rebelling and wanting to go home. he had 3 ships: the nina, pinta, and santa maria.
Ponce de leon: 1st european to step foot on american soil. looking for gold and fountain of youth.
1540's Hernando de Soto brought food in the form of pigs. 1st european to set foot in arkansas. he landsed in the panhandle of florida. none of his men died from snake bites. his pigs ate the snakes.
St augustine: probably oldest city.
1609 santa fe
Coronado: 1st european to see grand canyon. he punished the indians that lied to him. he found no gold.
Verrazzano(italian) killed by cannibals.
Cartier and Champlain: discovered the st. laurence river (it flows north)
the french came basically for fish. the lesser grade fish fed the slaves in the caribbean.
N.W. passage
Fur trade.
1497: John Cabot (Italian), laid claim to the land aound NY to Canada.
Roanoke: 1st major effor to establish a successfurl english colony-historically it failed. off the coast of N.C., SirWalter Raleigh, Led by john white, Queen Elizabeth 1, didn't care if english colonies hijacked the spanish ships carrying gold. Virginia Dare: 1st english child born in the us.
Southern Colonies:
Alabama, Tenn., Ark., Miss., Louisiana, TX.


Jamestown (starving time) 1607 Virginia. -corporation, 1st successful eng. colony, john smith, john rolfe (found a way to process tobacco)-married pocahontas. the tobacco produced money.
North colonies:
Iowa, Ohio, Illinois, Michigan
Southern Colonies:

House of Burgesses: the settlers in Jamestown elected people to go and make decisions for them.
was to be utopia. Oglethorpe.
Rum could be impoted, slavery allowed, and as much land as you wanted was possible-the rules had changed.
North and South
-Rice -plantation
in 1649 passed the toleration act. it doesn't protect slaves or jews, it granted religious freedom towards christians, 1st step towards religious freedom.
it's in the first amendment.
namedafter queen mary. it was to be the only catholic colony in america. it's open to anybody so puritans and quakers and others came and outnumbered catholics. there started to be laws against the catholics.
Middle Passage:
t was the middle leg of a three-part voyage -- a voyage that began and ended in Europe. The first leg of the voyage carried a cargo that often included iron, cloth, brandy, firearms, and gunpowder. Upon landing on Africa's "slave coast," the cargo was exchanged for Africans. Fully loaded with its human cargo, the ship set sail for the Americas, where the slaves were exchanged for sugar, tobacco, or some other product. The final leg brought the ship back to Europe.
Task system:
: [What] evolved on the rice plantations [was] a system known as "the task system." So that rather than slaves working in gangs with somebody pushing them, ...a particular area of work, depending on the job to be done, was assigned to each slave. And the slave was free to leave when that work was done to the driver's satisfaction. And it was sort of calculated, as one planter put it in his overseer's contract, to be the amount of work the meanest slave -- by that I think meaning an average slave -- working industriously could accomplish in ten hours. They normally began the work day at try to avoid the worst of the heat.
A redemptioner is an immigrant, generally from the 18th or 19th century, that gained passage to America by selling themselves as an indentured servant.
Maroon Societies:
"Maroon Societies" is a systematic study of the communities formed by escaped slaves in the Caribbean, Latin America, and the United States. These societies ranged from small bands that survived less than a year to powerful states encompassing thousands of members and surviving for generations and even centuries.
Samuel Sewall:
Governor Phips appointed Sewall to the Court of Oyer and Terminer on May 27, 1692. Sewell's diary entries provide important information about the Salem witch trials. The diary entries reveal little personal reservations or remorse concerning his own role in the conduct of the trials. In December 1696, however, Sewall wrote a proclamation for a day of fast and penance and reparation by the government for the sins of the witchcraft trials. Sewall publicly apologized for his role in the trials. Each year after 1697 Sewall set aside a day in which he fasted and prayed for forgiveness for his sins in the Salem trials.
George Whitefield:
A firm Calvinist in creed yet unrivalled as an aggressive evangelist; slim in person yet storming in preaching as if he were a giant; a clergyman of the Church of England yet crossing the Atlantic thirteen times and becoming the 'apostle of the England empire'; a favorite preacher of coal miners and London roughnecks yet an equal favorite of peers and scholars; weak and broken in body yet preaching his last sermon'until the candle which he held in his hand burned away and went out in its socket'; the name of George Whitefield scarce knows a parallel.
Great Awakening:
The Great Awakening was a watershed event in the life of the American people. Before it was over, it had swept the colonies of the Eastern seaboard, transforming the social and religious life of land. Although the name is slightly misleading--the Great Awakening was not one continuous revival, rather it was several revivals in a variety of locations--it says a great deal about the state of religion in the colonies. For the simple reality is that one cannot be awakened unless you have fallen asleep.
Plains of Abraham:
Battle of the Plains of Abraham, fought September 13, 1759, was a decisive battle of the North American theatre of the Seven Years' War (a theatre known in the United States as the French and Indian War). It was fought on a plateau just outside the city walls of Quebec City in New France, on the land of Abraham Martin dit L'Écossais. Combat lasted only 30 minutes, ending a three-month siege of Quebec City.
Peace of Paris (1763):
The peace of Paris, 1763: the conflict between foreign policy and domestic politics in England
Intolerable Acts:
Closed port of boston.
1st continental congress.
The government spent immense sums of money on troops and equipment in an attempt to subjugate Massachusetts. British merchants had lost huge sums of money on looted, spoiled, and destroyed goods shipped to the colonies. The revenue generated by the Townshend duties, in 1770, amounted to less than £21,000. On March 5, 1770, Parliament repealed the duties, except for the one on tea. That same day, the Boston massacre set a course that would lead the Royal Governor to evacuate the occupying army from Boston, and would soon bring the revolution to armed rebellion throughout the colonies. See also the Tea Act.
Boston Massacre:
The Boston Massacre is the name commonly given to the killing of five civilians by British troops on March 5, 1770, which became a cause celebre among pro-independence groups and helped to eventually spark the American Revolutionary War. Colonists were already resentful of the Townshend Acts. Tensions caused by the heavy military presence in Boston led to brawls between soldiers and civilians, and eventually to troops shooting their muskets into a riotous crowd.
Boston Tea Party:
The Boston Tea Party was a direct action protest by the American colonists against Great Britain in which they destroyed many crates of tea bricks on ships in Boston Harbor. The incident, which took place on Thursday, December 16, 1773, has been seen as helping to spark the American Revolution.
Declaratory Act:
The Declaratory Act (short title 6 George III, c. 12), was an Act of the Parliament of Great Britain in 1766, during America's colonial period; one of a series of resolutions passed attempting to regulate the behavior of the colonies. American rebels had organized a boycott in response to the Stamp Act which called into question the right of a distant power to tax them. The Declaratory Act asserted Britain's exclusive right to legislate for and tax its colonies. The taxes were mainly used to finance war debt which had been accumulated during a recent series of wars, part of which (known as the French and Indian War in America) were fought in the colonies.

Colonists responded by loosely interpreting this Act and believed that this Act did not give Britain the power to tax and the Act was just a face-saving measure by Britain after the repeal of the Stamp Act 1765.

This is one of the many British "Acts" that led to colonial unrest and eventually the American Revolution.
Stamp Act:
The Stamp Act 1765 (short title Duties in American Colonies Act 1765; 5 George III, c. 12) was the fourth Stamp Act to be passed by the Parliament of Great Britain and required all legal documents, permits, commercial contracts, newspapers, wills, pamphlets, and playing cards in the American colonies to carry a tax stamp. The Act was enacted in order to defray the cost of maintaining the military presence protecting the colonies. The Act passed unanimously on March 22, 1765, and went into effect later that year on November 1, 1765. It met with great resistance in the colonies and was never effectively enforced. Colonists threatened tax collectors with tarring and feathering, and few collectors were willing to risk their well-being to uphold the tax. The Act was finally repealed on March 18, 1766. This incident increased the colonists' concerns about the intent of the British Parliament and added fuel to the growing separatist movement that later resulted in the American Revolution.
1st Continental Congress:

Some of the most prominent figures of the era were among the 55 delegates in attendance, including George Washington, Samuel Adams, John Adams, Patrick Henry, Richard Henry Lee, John Jay and John Dickinson.
The First Continental Congress convened in Philadelphia's Carpenters Hall on September 5, 1774. The idea of such a meeting was advanced a year earlier by Benjamin Franklin, but failed to gain much support until after the Port of Boston was closed in response to the Boston Tea Party.

Twelve of the 13 colonies sent delegates. Georgia decided against roiling the waters; they were facing attacks from the restive Creek on their borders and desperately needed the support of regular British soldiers.

The Congress, which continued in session until late October, did not advocate independence; it sought rather to right the wrongs that had been inflicted on the colonies and hoped that a unified voice would gain them a hearing in London.