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72 Cards in this Set

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Nile
A river beginning in the heart of Africa and coursing northward for thousands of miles. It is the longest river in the world.
"Gift of the Nile"
The gift of the Nile was it's annual flooding. It rose in the summer from rains in Central Africa and left a deposit of silt that enriched the soil.
Black Land
Fertile land that was dark in color from the silt and crows that grew on it so densely.
Red Land
Deserts that lay beyond the narrow strips of fertile land.
Delta
Triangular shaped territory that splits the river into two major branches.
Old Kingdom
The Old Kingdom encompassed the third through sixth dynasties of Egyptian kinds that united Upper and Lower Egypt into a single kingdom.
Middle Kingdom
Period of stability lasting from around 2055 to 1650 BC
New Kingdom
Period where Egypt created an empire and became the most powerful state in the Middle East
Menes
King who was in power when Upper and Lower Egypt was united into a single kingdom
Pharaoh
Divine intsruments who maintained order and were themselves subject to it.
Ma'at
A spiritual precept that conveyed the ideas of truth and justice and especially right order and harmony.
Bureaucracy
Goverment that consisted of offices usually based on social hierarchy.
Vizier
"steward of the whole land" The vizier was in charge of the bureaucracy.
Nomes
Divisions of Egypt for administrative purposes
Nomarch
Governor who was head of each nome and responsible to the king and vizier.
Middle class
Consisted of merchants and artisans
Lower class
Consisted of serfs, or commong people, who cultivated the estates.
Re
Sun god with a human body and the head of a falcon.
Atum
Sun god worshipped in human form.
"Son of Re"
Pharaoh had this title because he was regarded as the earthly form of Re.
Osiris
Symbol of ressurection or rebirth
Isis
Symbolized the flood of the Nile and the new life it brought to Egypt
Mummification
A process of slowly drying a dead body to prevent it from decomposing.
Pyramid
Built as part of a larger complex of buildings dedicated to the dead. "A city of the dead"
Mastabas
Rectangular structures with flat roofs, as tombs for the pharaoh's nolbe officials.
Ka
The spiritual body of a human
Khufu
King who built largest and most magnificent of all the pyramids
Giza
City where the Great Pyramid was built
Formulaic
Type of art where artists were expected to observe a strict canon of proportions that determined both form and presentation.
Hieroglyphics
Sacred characters used as picture signs that depicted objects and had a sacred value at the same time.
Hyksos
Rulers of Egypt for almost a hundred years.
Hatshepsut
Queen who was one of the first women to become and pharoah in her own right.
Amenhotep IV
Introduced the worship of Aten, god of the sun disk, as the chief god and pursued his worship with great enthusiasm.
Tutankhamun
King who returned the government to Thebes and restored the old gods.
Monogamy
Marriage in which an individual has only one spouse.
megalith
large structure made from stone. Greek for "large stone"
Stonehenge
Famous megalith structure in England that consists of a series of concentric righs of standing stones
Semitic
a group of languages
Indo-Europeans
Refers to a people who used a language derived from a single parent tongue
Indo-European languages
Includes Greek, Latin, Persian, Sanskrit, and the Germanic and Slavic languages
Hittite Kingdom
Powerful empire created in western Asia that threatened the power of the Egyptians
alphabet
simplified form of writing that uses sounds instead of pictures
Hebrews
Semitic speaking people that eventually became the Jews
Monotheism
belief in one god
Judaism
Religion of the Hebrew people that later influenced both Christianity and Islam
Abraham
Migrated from Ur to Palestine and created covenant with God
Moses
Helped Hebrew people flee from Egypt and renew their covenant with GOd
Israelites
An indigenous people who established a united kingdom known as Israel
Saul
First king of the Israelites
David
Centralized Israel's organization and accelerated the integration of the Israelites into a settled community based on farming and urban life
Solomon
Son of David who expanded the political and military establishments and was especially active in extendingthe trading activites of the Israelites
Jerusalem
Capital city of Israel
Temple
symbolic center of the religion and the kingdom of Israel itself
Ark of Covenant
Holy chest containing the sacred relics of the Hebrew religion and the throne of the invisible God of Israel
Kingdom of Israel
Composed of the ten northern tribes, with its capital at Samaria
Kingdom of Judah
Composed of two tribes, with its capital at Jerusalem
Yahweh
Jewish God
Universalism
Doctrine that all people with be saved and go to heaven at some point after they are dead
Covenant
contract between God and Abraham
Jewish Bible
Includes histories, the laws of the two Jewish kingdoms and various other writings
Polytheism
Belief in many gods
Assyria
First new empire located on the upper Tigris River, an area that brought it into both cultural and political contact with southern Mesopotamia.
polyglot society
Society that uses many languages
Babylonia
The leading state in Western Asia with the reputation as one of the great cities of the ancient world, eventually made into a Persian province
Persians
Indo-European speaking people who were nomadic in southwestern Iran
Achaemenid Dynasty
Dynasty that managed to unify the Persians
Cyrus
Extended Persia control over the Medes, making Media the first Persian province
Satrapy
Province of Persia
Darius
Added a new Persian provice in western India that extended to the Indus River and moved into Europe proper
Satrap
"protector of the kingdom" who collected tributes, were responsible for justice and security, raised military levies for the royal army, and normally commaded the militar forces within their satrapies
Susa
chief capital of the Persian empire
Zoroastrianism
monotheistic religion of the Persians