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35 Cards in this Set

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What was the Protestant Reformation?
The Protestant Reformation was a religious movement against the corruption of the Catholic Church. Protestants moved towards a less ceremonial and ornamental view of Church practices, believing that salvation came from faith alone, not from the church.
Protesting against the Catholic Church
What was the Protestant Reformation?
The Protestant Reformation was a religious movement against the corruption of the Catholic Church. Protestants moved towards a less ceremonial and ornamental view of Church practices, believing that salvation came from faith alone, not from the church.
Protesting against the Catholic Church
Martin Luther was a priest who was fed up with the corruption of the church. On Halloween, 1517, he decided that he would protest by nailing 95 theses (things that he thought the church was doing wrong) to a church doorway. This caused a big stink. Luther’s heart was in the right place – he wanted God to become paramount in the church again, but his actions would have very nasty effects, like numerous religious wars and conflicts, some still going on to this day.
Who was Martin Luther?
At the Peace of Augsburg, Charles V, the Holy Roman Emperor, decided that he would allow the Princes of the German provinces to choose their own religion. The Princes of the Northern Provinces became Protestant, while the Southern Provinces stayed Catholic.
What happened at the Peace of Augsburg?
Calvin thought that Luther had the right idea, but didn’t take it far enough. He believed in predestination. He set up a theocracy at Geneva for his “new chosen people.” He had a cult leader mentality, and was against fighting, swearing, dancing, laughing in Church, theatre, and fancy dress. In short, he was a severe guy who wasn’t up for fun.
Who was John Calvin?
What is an indulgence?
An indulgence is a church pardon for sins committed. It lessened the time spent in purgatory. To raise money, the church started selling them. (Apparently, they never heard of a bake sale.)
What does recant mean?
Recant means to retract or take back.
Why did Charles V want Martin Luther to recant his views?
Charles V wanted Martin Luther to recant his views because they were causing a serious uproar in his empire. When Luther didn’t, Charles V exiled him.
What does predestination mean?
Predestination means that your salvation, or ability to get into heaven, was determined before your birth by God. There is nothing you can do about it. The opposite of free will.
What is a theocracy?
A theocracy is a government ruled by religious leaders. (IE, the Bush administration)
Why did many Christians want reform in the Church?
Many Christians wanted reform in the Church because the church was growing outlandishly unchristian. Between the sale of indulgences, the constant need for money, the Church’s abuse of power, and simply the oppressive hierarchy, the Protestants saw a need for change. Sadly, a lot of the reform did not go back towards the progressive ideals of Christ.
How did Martin Luther’s views differ from Catholic doctrine?
Martin Luther believed that all people should be able to read the Bible and determine their theology for themselves. He also believed that faith was an individual matter – it was up to each person to find their own relationship with God. He wanted to get away from the ceremonies of the Church, the pilgrimages, some of the sacraments, and prayers to saints. He also thought the clergy should be able to marry.
Why did Martin Luther get support?
Luther got support from the people because they saw it as an opportunity to reform the corruption of the Church. He got support from the German Princes because they saw it as an opportunity to gain power, by overthrowing the church and the Holy Roman Empire.
Name five ideas taught by Calvin
Predestination, the division of the world into two types of people Saints (those where were going to heaven) and Sinners (those who were not), extremely strict morality is the sign of a saint, religious education for everyone regardless of gender
What was the Peasants’ Revolt?
The Peasants’ Revolt was a call for social and economic change – an end to serfdom.
What made Luther an asshat during the Peasants’ Revolt?
Luther was against the uprising, and condoned the death and homelessness of tens of thousands of people.
Who was John Knox?
John Knox was a Calvinist preacher in Scotland. Also the founder of the Presbyterian church. He helped the Scots overthrow their Catholic queen.
How did the Reformation reflect humanist ideas?
The ideals of the Reformation stated that people could find salvation through their own faith. It brought the issue of God back to a personal relationship between the human and the divine, as opposed to a church handing down an edict.
Why did Luther’s protest cause a split in the church when earlier reform movements did not?
A few reasons: The corruption had come to an intense point. People have to be really sickened by what goes on to change, not only partly sickened. Also, issues of power. The German princes gained by having their own church. It separated them somewhat from the Holy Roman Empire, and gave them more of their own identity.
What is a Huguenot?
A French Calvinist
Who was Henry VIII?
Henry VIII was the king of England and self-appointed head of its new Anglican Church, which he created when he wanted an annulment from his first wife Catherine of Aragon. He was a driven, crazy, power-hungry king who went through six wives. He kept on hoping for a male heir to his throne. Because he didn’t know that biologically, it was his fault that he wasn’t having sons, he cast off and/or killed five wives before the sixth had a son, Edward. Ironically, Edward died early in his own reign, and Henry’s true heir was Elizabeth.
Who was Elizabeth I?
Elizabeth I was the first protestant queen of England. Called the Virgin Queen, she tried to create order in a country divided by issues of faith. She did have her Catholic cousin killed, but her efforts in general were towards a more unified England. While she did persecute Catholics, it was not on the grand scale as her sister, Bloody Mary, before her persecuted the Protestants. She ended up turning the country into a moderate Protestant nation under the Anglican Church, which kept some of the Catholic traditions.
What was the Council of Trent?
Pope Paul III wanted to revive the morality of the Church and reform from within. To figure out exactly how to do this, he created the Council of Trent. It met periodically over 20 years, reaffirming Catholic beliefs, such as good works and faith lead to salvation and that the Bible is not the only source of religious truth. It also sought to cut down on the corruption of the Church and create a better educated clergy.
The Inquisition was a church court that persecuted the people who didn’t live in strict adherence of the church. They were perfectly fine with using torture and execution to root out heresy. (Very good Christian types.) They also banned books that were too immoral or sacrilegious for Catholics to read.
What is the Inquisition?
What does canonize mean?
If someone is canonized in the Catholic Church, they have become a saint.
Who were the Jesuits?
Founded by Ignatius of Loyola, the Jesuits were a Catholic organization that promoted the spread of the faith through moral and spiritual discipline and education. They set up schools promoting Catholicism, traveled to help Catholics in protestant nations, and became missionaries to spread Catholicism in the colonies in Asia, Africa, and America.
Who was Teresa of Avila?
Teresa was a symbol of the renewal of Catholic faith during the Catholic reformation. She was from a wealthy family, and decided to become a nun. She thought her convent was not strict enough, and set up her own order, where the nuns lived in isolation with little food or sleep, dedicating themselves to prayer. After her death, she became canonized and her works on religion are some of the important Christian texts of her time.
What does annul mean?
To annul a marriage is to dissolve it, or say that it didn’t happen. It is a different status than divorce. Basically, if a marriage is annulled, then in the eyes of the Church and God, it never happened. Traditionally, only the Pope can annul a marriage.
What is a scapegoat?
A convenient person or group of people upon whom you can blame your problems. Traditionally scapegoats have been marginalized groups: women, homosexuals, Jews, people of color…so on and so forth.
What is a ghetto?
The term ghetto came into existence long before the Holocaust, but the meaning during the Renaissance is essentially the same. It is a separate quarter of the city where Jews were forced to live. Many of them in Italy were walled off from the rest of the city.
Who were the Anabaptists?
The Anabaptists were those who argued that baptism shouldn’t happen at birth because babies are too young to understand what it means to accept Christianity. Only adults should be baptized.
What made the Anabapists radical? (And progressively ahead of their time?)
Some Anabaptists wanted to abolish private property. Others wanted to speed up the apocalypse. These were the more out there ones. The calmer, really progressive Anabaptists wanted religious toleration and separation of church and state.
How did England became a Protestant country?
There was some call for protestant reform since the middle ages. By the 1520s, some of the English clergy followed some Protestant ideas. However, England didn’t officially become a Protestant country until Henry VIII decided to break off his marriage to Catherine of Aragon because the Pope wouldn’t give him an annulment. Henry then created the Anglican Church, with him as the official leader. He then felt free to marry Anne Boleyn (who was also power hungry and crazy).
What were the goals of the Catholic reformation?
The goals of the Catholic reformation were to reclaim the Church and the center of morality of Europe.
Why did persecution increase after the Reformation?
Persecution increased after the reformation because fear increased during the reformation. Before the reformation there was simply the church. There was an order. When that order got disrupted, wars started and fear and uncertainty grew. It’s easier for most people to blame an “other” than to deal with their own fear.