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101 Cards in this Set

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Dark Ages/middle ages
germainc invasions destroyed Rome. Decline in trade. law and order vanished. education disppeared and moeny no longer used.loss of education.early opart of this period. medieval. era of tranision b/w ancient and modern. violent.
franks
france and west germany. strongest germanic group. Merovingian- early rulers. Ruler Merowig.
Clovis
brutal wily warrior. King of Franks. 1st germanic ruler accept christianity. military victorie- stability. divide kingdoms among heirs- fighting
mayors of the palace
governemnt officials
Charles Martel
"charles the hammer". mayor of the palace. Tours Frnace- defeated muslims. Chrisitanity dominant relgion.
Pepin the Short
son of charles Martel. King of Franks. pope annointed him- divignly chosen eyes of people. forced lombard withdrawl form Rome. large strip land- pope. pope- cut ties with Byzantines. franks protectors. West Europe and catholocism bound togehter.
Charlemagne
pipin's son. Charles the Great. Carolus MAgnus. Carolingian dynasty. Einhard- his biographer. doubled borders of kingdom. ruled by goverment- 1st since Rome fall. few people read and write. revive learning.palace school. common set of ideas. Christian Roman empire. defended pope Leo III. crowned roman emperor.doubt. churhc superior to rulers. accdepted. forceful personality- held empire togehter. died- Louis the Pious. no one fill shoes. fighting- grandsons
palace school
established by chrlemagne. in Aachen- capital. educate officials. ALcuin- scholar form england= ran school; developed study program on ible and latin. preserved classical learning.
counts
local officials . carefully instructed. solved local problems. stopped fueds. protected weak. raised armies
Missi Dominici
royal messengers. yearly inspection
Treaty of Verdun
divide carolingian lands
Charles the Bald- France
Louis the german- germany
Lothair- Roman emperor
internal feduing; weakened kingdeoms
Invasions Carolingians
Muslims, slavs, Magyars- Asian fierce nomads, Vikings
Vikings
Scandanavia, "A- Viking", long deckless ships, suprise attacks, sppedy retreats, steal and burn, no place safe, ruches and adventure, fought ferociously, no mercy, exploreres and settlers, Norweigians- Iceland and greenland, Normandy, Swedes,polythesitc, proud of gods, converted to christianity,
drekars
viking ships, one sail, glide throught water, swift, light, sturdy, wooden, propelled by oars,
Danes
england vikings
eddas
viking peoms
Sagas
long tales, great deeds
runes
viking language with roman letters,
Viking toll
people suffered, isolated scommunities, weakend central authroity of manarchs, declined trade, economic collapse, nobles and local officials- defense, new political and social system- more stability
feudalism
new political system,decentralized form of governemnt, ,alliances of mutual protection- monarchs and nobles, based on giving land to nobles- exchange for loyalty and military aid, lande ownership and military service
Cahrles MArtel (feudal)
muslims, saddles with stirrups, horseback, sword or lance, adopt saddle, cavalry, coast- new military system
fiefs
estates with peasants, income- buy horses, Franks enlarged-feifs to counts, nobles- government duties, pleged loyalty to king, provided knights- mounted warriors
feudal pyramid
kings at top, lords middle, vassals, knights on bottom,
vassal
noble who served a lord of the next higher rank, pleged allegiance to more than one lord, pledge certain duties- recieve fief, military service, certain 3 of knights for 40-60 days, serve in lords court, food and lodging for lord,k funds when son becomes knight or daugthter gets married, pay randsom
Homage
ceremony where ties b/w lord and vassal were made,
Warefare (fuedal)
common, no strong central government,
castles
wooden with high fences and dirt mounds, stone with turrets, on hill or mound surrounded by deep moat,
keep
square tower of a castle, strongest part of an castle,
bailey
surrounded a keep of a castle
nobility
lords, aldies, knights, castles-cold damp and dingy,
lord- nobleman
fief- within almost total authority, collect rant, settle disputes,
lady- noblewoman
few rights, wed- 12th brithday-arranged, raising children and household duties, needlework, medicines,
tournaments
mock battles b/w knights, nobles hunt, falconry or archery,
knights
noblemans son, 7-page-assistant, manners and weapons, 15-squire, assisted knights, porve himself in battle knighted,
chivalry
knights code, brave in battle, fight fairly and defend churhc, keep promises and treat women with respect,
peasants
lived and worked on nobles land, poor and protection, farming, payments with goods, labor- road and bridge reapair, artisans, plow- easier nad better, less time in fields, three field system- winter and Spring, one empty- more poeple
manorialsim
economic ties, agricultural production, manors and estates, trade impossible, self sufficient,
manors
lords house, pasture and peasant village, fields crops and forests, helped invent plow
serfs
peasants who worked on a manor, rarely left manor, bound to manor, not leave w/o permission, not slaves, few lived lived beyond 40, famine and disease, war- hit hard, tiny 1 roomed houses, dirt floor, no cimeny, little furniture, meat rarely, realx sundays and holy days, games and plays, common interest in lnad, equality in eyes of god, heirarchy, not question standing or obligations, lack freedom and opportunity, stable and sequre way of life,
Viking attacks
churches/monasteries- center of wealth, burned and looted, shock to people, attack from "nowhere", seaborn warriors, costal communities- unprepared nad weak
Godstad
longest longship, place hwere found, 80 ft, burial chamber, hull planks thin,
viking ships
narrow and aerodynamic, high prow, speed, hul design- determining factor in speed,clinkerbuilding- hull planking overlapped, reduces drag, oak timbers, flexible, lighter, cleating- split wood along grain- reatin natural strength, highly manouverable,sail of wool, elasticity, 2 layers, horizontal loom,
picture stone
depicts ship
viking weapons
wooden shield, pattern welded swords, no better than anyone elses, paint shields- wood grain, mail and padding, stop spear, decorated with rune,
Val Hala
viking heaven, maidens, feasting, heroic way to die, die inwar, gods appointess of war,
Bierka
image, social status, pagan links, no females, cult, anti christian,
beserkers
narcotic mushrooms, muscimole, ibatnic acid,
Christian Church
sominant spiritual influence, church center of lives, primary mission spiritual, roman decline- political an dsocial tasks, poep strongest politivcal leader, all people sinners, dependant on gods grace
Peter the apostle
first bishop , choasen bby jesus
sacraments
chruch rituals, baptism, penance, confirmation, matrimony, anointing of sick, holy orders, only way to recieve grace,
eucharist
holy communion, commerated christs death, last supper, priests, mass jesus invisible presence in blood and wine
Limited understanding church
masses in latin, poorly educated preists, learned through art, illeterate, parish priests conducted services
secular clergy
pope, bishops, priests,
regular clergy
monks and nuns, preserved ancient texts and classical writing, scribes, illuminated manuscripts
Benedict
Roman official, founded monte Cassino Cluny Italy- monastery, modle, list of rules- maunal ork, meditation, prayer, Benedictine Rule- monk couldn't own goods, never marry, bound to obey monastic laws, povery, chastity, obediance, abbot- monastery head
Monks
wore simple long robes, coarse material tied at waist, 1 or two meals a day, rule of silence, read bible or meditate,
Nuns
lived in convent, abess- leader, simple cloths, wimple around face and neck, spun, wove, prayed, taught needlework and herbal medicine,
Monasteries
schools and hospitals, young and sick, food and shelter, taught carpentry and weaving, agriculture improvements, missionaries
Pope gregory I
adopted benedictine rule, monk- St. Augustine- England, converted anglo saxons, Ireland- St. PAtrick
st. Augustine
first archbishop of canterbery, sent by pope Gregory I to england, convert anglosaxons
church power
help governemn west europe, own laaws and cpurts, cases w/ clergy, disobedienace- severe penalty,
interdict
banned entire region from recieveing sacraments,
church feudal ties
high church officials- nobles, religious duties prevented fighting, land to knights, donation of land and money, influecnced chruch polocies,
Chruch reforms
began in monasteries, Cluny Monastery- France, monks won respect, simple pius lives, wanted chruch and state to be final authority, political leaders no longer choose pope- cardinals, poep appoint bishops and other officials,
Pope gregory VII
complete jurisdiction over all officials, lay investiture
lay investiture
kings and nobles giving symbol of chruch office to lower people
Pope Inncoent III
council- condemed drunkness, feasting, and dancing, stop spread of heresy, increased corruption, excommunication,
heresy
denail of chruch teachings
Albigensians
heretics, French, material world evil, crushed by French knights
Inquision
court, stop heresy, torture, false accusations, repenters welcome back, didn't punished, imprisonment, execution, loss of property,
Friars
wandering preachers, depended on food and shelter gifts, didn't isolate themselves, preaced christianity, reformers
Frnaciscians
Francis of Asisis, founded Franscisican Friars, follow simple life of jesus
Dominicans
Dominic, Spanish priest, Dominican friars, lived in poverty, well educated, persuasive preachers
Jews
position worsensd, outsiders and threat to society, blamed for problems, killed,blamed for jesus death, wear badges to show jews, required, live in ghetos, peddlers, lost rights, expelled, Poland- protection, communities
anti sematism
hatred of jews
monarchy
central authrity disappeared, build strong states,
Germanic tribes england
angles, saxons, jutes - tooke britain from celts, kingdoms
Alfred the Great/ Alfred of Wessox
vikings- danish, united anglo saxon kingdoms, defeated danes, "angleland", wanted to revive learning, founded schools, translated book from latin to anglosaxon, history of england- Anglo saxon chronicles sucessors weak
edward the confessor
last anglo saxon king, weak
William duke of normandy
cousin of english king, fuedal stronghold- west ffrance, invaded england, william crowned king, William the conquerer, too anglo lands, gave to naroman vassalsw, swear directly to him, established council of noblessherrifs to ceollect taxes, census- Domesday book, blende french wiht anglo heritage
Battle of hastings
willima won over harold, military tactic,
Harold godswin
king chosen by anglo saxon nobles,
Henry I
established the exchequer- collected taxes, roayl court greater authority
Henry II
common law, traveling judges apply fairly, grand jury- names, petit jury- guilt or inncoence, try clergy in royal court, thomas Becket- Arch. of canterbery, killed by knights in own church , St. thomans,
Elanor of Aquitaine
married to Henry II, mother to richard lion heart and john, influenced royal policies,
john
lost english land, taxed people unfairly, accused people and punished without trial, MAgna Carta
Magna Carta
runneymeade, trial by jury, no taxation without approval by great council, limit royal power, protected fuedal rights
Henry III
increased population, middle class, gave them rights, added them to great council, income from business and trade, wanted role in govern., Great council changed to parliment,
Edward I
model parliment, more representative government, house of lords- nobles and clergy, house of commons- knights and buresses
France
independant feudal lords,
Hugh Capet
seized french throne, Carolingian, Capetian dynasty, eldest son inheritance, streanghten monarchfeudal laord- royal control,
Louis VI
townspeople and clergy on court, granted self government to towns, loyal to monarch
Philip augustus
doubled domain, nmarriage and conquer, local officials loyal to king, semi permanant amry, weakend fuedal lords
Louis IX
royal courts over fuedal courts, only king mint coins, banned private warefare and arms bearing, religious, chivelry and moral charachter
Philip IV
phillip the fair, increased territory and trade, deafeated england and flanders, raised taxes, taxed clergy, estates general- assembly nobles, clergy, townpeople, raise national taxes
germany
weak and powerless, papal disputes, the mag
King Otto I, Otto the Great,
restore charlemagne empire, defeated the magyrs- Battle of lechfield, Italy, helped pope John XII- holy roman emperor, sucessor intervegne in papal disputes,
pope germany
right to annoint and despose kings, dispute
Henry IV
quarrel, pope Gregory VII- condemn investiture, free chruch secualr control, bishops supproted henry, excommunicated, loss of support,
Showdown at conossa
Henry gave in, plaed in Canossa, Italy, for pope, 3 days, pardoned- required, compromise, continue struggle, threatened church authority,
Concodat of worms
emperor name bishops and give them land, Pope right to decline anyone unworthy