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64 Cards in this Set

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Abbasid state
arabic- common language
Muslim women
men resposible for women, position defined by relationship with male, fobid killing of female infants, 4 wives treated equally, controlled/ inherited property, teachers/ leaders, lives revolved around household
Muslim men
politics and army, public baths, chess and gynastics, age 7- mosque school: poor no pay-wealthy pay,
Muslim education
speak and write Arabic, little more than read and write, Madrasas- theological schools
Muslim cities
Damascus- trading center, Kufa- military town, districts-business/residential, houses- few windows and courtyards, governement and relgious buildings at center,
mosques
prayer halls, mihrab- niche, direction of mecca, gardens and water, courtyards, Kabah
trade
caravans, Indian ocean, Damscus and Macca and Baghdad
bazaar
marketplaces, mazes of shops and stalls, warehouses
farming
scarce water, irrigation, rotation, fertilization, large estates, figs and beans, flowers for perfume, Spain
House of Wisdom
Ma'mun, translated scientific texts, experiements, calculations, place to go and works and study
Math, Science and Medicine
adopted Arabic numerals from Gupta India, place value system where place of number indicates value, algebra, trigonometry, observatory in Baghdad, solar eclipses, moon affects oceans, positions of stars, direction and time, maps of continents, alchemy,
Al- Razi
clasification system, medicle encyclopedia, origin of disease smal pox and measles,
Ibn Siha
doctor, wrote Canon of Medicine, summarized medicle knowledge,
ibn Al-Hytham
founded optics, light comes into eye from object instead of out of eye to object
art and architecture
opposed idol worship, no people or animals, geometric designs, mosques
caligraphy
elegant handwriting, decorate walls of maoques, passages fo Quran, arabic, arabesques
literature
poetry, religion influenced, non-religious texts, Quran, Kalila and Pimna- animals that tought moral lessons, elegants speech and wordplay, reading- good upbringing, libraries- Cordoba, Perisian- 2nd literary language, epics
Omar Khayyam
wrote Rubaiyat- epic, The Arabian nights
Philosophy
based on Greek, logic, transalated into Latin
Ibn Sina
Aricenna- books on logic
Ibn- Rushd
Cordoban judge, wrote Averroes
Moses Maimonides
Spanish Jew, fled opression, leader of Jewish community, reconcile faith with Aristotles teafchings, Mishne Torah- JEwish law and tradition, GUide to the Perplexed, one of the greatest philosopers
History
chronicles, lives of rulers
tabari and Ibn al-Athir
great historians
Ibn Khaldun
north african diplomat, cause-effect relationships, people shaped by climate, geography, moral and spiritual forces
arabian penisula
south asia minor, semantic tribes, smoewhat isloated, b/w Red sea and Persian Gulf, southwaest- valleys, water, mountains, rest- arid plains and deserts
oases
fertile areas around springs and watering holes
arab lifestyle
lived in tents, nomads and herders, ate dates, milk , and mutton, tribes of families- lead by seikh, warefare life, sommon language, no unity, monothestic religions, search for new religion
bedouin
nomads who herded sheep, camels, and goats
Name for arabs in the arabian peninsula
Makkah/ Mecca
early
market town, commerce crossraods, 50 miles form Red Sea, trade by caravans, Kaba- holy shrine for idols, wealthy, Kaba- turned into a holy place of worship- destroyed idols, spiritual capital of Islam,
hanifs
holy men
Islam
"submission to the will of Allah",one god, worship and obey him, equality, devotion and good deeds, final judgement, Muslims- followers, no images or idols,
Muhammad
born in Mecca, orphan at early age, teen- caravan leader, Khadija- married later, reflected on meaning, of life, greed, worship of idols, and poor mistreatment troubled bim, prayed and fasted, revelation, apostle of Allah- ANgel Gabrial, "Recite!", returned to Mecca,shared news, new religion, Islam, slow folllowers, upset leaders, attacks on images, persecuted, forced to leave, went to Yathrib, changed name to Madinah, mecca invaded, Muslims won, returned to Mecca, death- formed a religious community , example of his life as guide for followers
Yathrib/ Madinah
center of Islam, Muhammad ruled as god's prophet and leader, political capital,
Hijrah
departure/ immigration of Muhammad to Yathrib, beginning of the Islamic era, first year of the Muslim calander- 622
Madinah compact
foundation of Islamic state , loyalty to Islamic community above layalty to their tribe, Muhammad settled disputes- decdlared cities judge and commander in chief, all areas of life placed under divine law, recorded in the Quran, extended protection to Jews and Christians who accepted Islam's poitical authority,
Quran
"recital", Gabriel's messages compile dinto a book after death of Muhammad, final authority, writtne in Arabic, not allowed ot be translated, god's message- stories and teachings, moral values: honor parents, kindness, generosity, specific rules- no eating pork or drinking alcohol, law and religion together,
Abu-Bakr
successor to Muhammad, ordered collection of writings,
Shari'an
body of law, linked to religion, covers all aspects of daily and relgious life, Quran and Hadith- sayings of Muhammad, 5 pillars
faith
submit to god, Muhammad was a last great prophet, Allah, Christians, Jews and Zoorostrians- People of the Book, arabs-> abrahams through Ismall, Jews-> Abraham through Isaac
prayer
5 times a day: noon, dawn, midday, dusk, evening; face Mecca; always knwwling and bowing; everywhere; in mosques;
imam
prayer leader, Male Muslim
Alms
charity; wealthy assist poor and weak; privatly and publicly, taxes
Fasting
Ramadan- 9th month of Muslim year, 1st revelation, sunrise to sunset- neither eat nor drink, seunset prayer, 3 day celebration at end
pilgrimige
hajj to Mecca, at least once in lifetime, 3 day ceremony and prayer, Ka'aba, expression of unity, all white robes, when old enough go, Considered great honor
caliphs
"successor", were successors to Muhammad
Rightly guided caliphs
Abu- Bakr, uther, uthman, ali, close in touch with the people, protect an spread Islam, attacke Persian and Byzantine empires, Perisna completly under Persian control,
Arab military sucess
highly mobile and organized military, united in belief that need to spread Islam- Jihad,
jihad
holy struggle bring Islam to other lands, weakened empires, other empires imposition of religious unity so they readily accepted Muslims,
Mu'awiyah
Ali's rival, weakened Ali hold on caliph, conquests of egypt and Iraq, Ali murdered by disillusioned follower,
Umayyad dynasty
Mu'awiyah- 1st caliph;
Husayn
Ali's son, sitll fough murdered in battle of Karbala,
Sunni
beliec that caliph was leader only, any devout muslim could hold office with agreement of people, no religious authority,
Shiite
Followers of ALi and Husayn only descendantsof Muhammad could serve as caliph, spiritual islamic leadership, sufffering symbol of devotion to islam
division
lasted until modren times, 90 % sunni; Shiites-> Iran
Sufism
mystical form of islam; direct contact with god, missionary work; fasting and meditation; spread Islam
Umayyad Dynasty 662-750
moved capital from Madinah to Damascus,expansion, India and China; North Africa and Spain; halfway into France, Charles Martel- defeated the Muslims in the battle of tours, stopped westward expansion; state- political over religious, ruled more like kings, helped untie ruled lands, arabic became official language, minted arabic currnecy and built roads and established postal services; civil service; improved conditions- special tax and belief in one god
Damascus
centrally located
Khalid ibn al- walid
Arab vcommander, led conquest of Syria and persia,
Umayyad downfall
disatifcation by no arab muslims- higher taxes and lower wages and socially discriminated, anti-Umayyads and non arab muslims banded together- army; 3 years battles overwhelmed Umayyads
Abbasid dynasty 750-1258
Abul'l abbas was first caliph, Almansur- built Baghdad
Baghdad
banks of Tigris River, trade routes, Medd. Sea and East Asia, circular city with walls, districts, center mosque and caliph palace, center wealthy, outskirt commoners
Harun al- Rashid
empire height, sophisticated urban civilization, equality, new ruling group; Persians- dominant- gov., Arabs, religion, Turks- Army
Abbasid fall
land broke free of Baghdad, Central Asis: Persian muslims- Sumanid dynasty, Bukhara,Samarkand and Tashkent- commercial, religious, and education centers; Independant states; last Umayyad new dynasty in Spain; Fatimids- Egyptian dynasty, rivaled baghdad, Seljuk Turks, Mongols- burned and slaughtered, last abbasid caliph