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152 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
1912 Presidential Election
Wildrow Wilson (progressive democrat) vs TR and Taft. He won because the republican vote was split.
TR's party he ran under
The Bull moose party- the progressives
2 reforms TR made
Federal Reserve Board (Federal Reserve Act) and Income Tax into the consitution (graduated income tax)
Federal Reserve Board/Act
US Banking system- they loan money to banks this is to help the US economy be stable. He wanted banks to be ornazied. Based on economy they will lower/raise interest rates theorectically money flow will be great.
Problem with the Federal Reserve Act/Board
If there is too much money in the conomy there is inflation (prices go up)
Income Tax (gratuated income tax)
allows citizen to plan how much money they have/ will have
At the end of Wilson's first term he is worried that we will get dragged into the war
German Submaries
boat sunk by Uboat w/ us citizen aboard Wilson issues warnings to Germany and eventually they promise to stop although they dont competely keep their promise
1916 Presidential Election
Wilson's campaign slogan "He kept us out of war" run against Charles Evans Hugs. What reassured americans was the slogan
zitterman's note
German wire to mexico saying that if they help they will give some land (from us) to mexico
Wilson's response
he wanted to fine another way to keep us out of the war but on top of note they continue sinking boats
April 1917
we declare
an important General (nickname black Jack) He was able to push Germans back ultimately
14 Points
most delt w/ allowing countires to rule themselves and no more secret Treaties.. most important the league of nations
League of Nations
If you bring the countires together than you can hopefully avoid war. Problem: US people dont want something that will involve us in other countries' buisness (real fight between Wilson and Senate).. 2/3 senate has to okay it
Henry Cabat Lodge
senetor said that they could not be part of league of nations to bail things out.
How did Wilson try to convince congress about the league of nations
went around the senate and talked to the american people to preasure senate to change their mind. he goes on a speaking tour (in the west).
Why does his tour end?
He suffered a stroke.. He recovered a little but was never the same
How senate wanted to resolve the league of nations issue
lodge said that why dont we just chuck the leage of nations.
Wilson's response to lodge
said no way- take it or leave it
Result of league of nations
congres left it
idealism of Utopian societ but the problem is it can get ou into some things unwanted
1920 Presidential Election
Dem- James Cox with vp FDR... vs warren g harding.Warren wins
Warrans slogan
no league of nations.. lets bring back normalancy
Red scare
americans were scared of communism because they were scared we would lose freedoms (like freedom of speech) Big buisness is really sacred because in Russia all of the factories are government owned/controlled. The wealthy are really the ones that push the scare (fear of socialists)
Attorney General A Mitchell Palmer
was the one who really pushed the red scare: palmer raids
Palmer raids
peoples houses were searched and the bill of rights kinda went down the tubs in terms of this
Sacco and Vanzetti Case
two itallians were convicted of murder and electricuted to death but people say that evidence was tainted. If there wasnt so much antiforign then the jury would have aquited for lack of evidence
KKK reimmerged
numbers swell because of forigners. They take new groups to hate. 1925 40,000 members walk in parade. the clan raises money to point out why all these people need to be controlled
Immigration Act of 1924
congressed is having the same reaction as the people:: this act allows only 2% (instead of 3%) of immigrants to enter. Used a censius from 1890 instead of 1910 because there were more itallians then. This ends a period of open door and tightens things up
18th amendment
result of 18th amendment
speak easies, beginning of orangized crime and mobs and gansters
st. valentines day massacre
killing by al compne of 7 rival unarmed men/gang
what do they jail al capone for?
tax audit
Scopes Monkey Trial
about evolution, teacher wanted to teach evolution but they wouldnt let him. He did it anyway. John scopes. They sue him. THey fine him $100 but it make the anti evolution people look a little nuts (weakened cause)
bacame the greatest team to play.. babe ruth, everone knows him (spokes person for productions
Henry Ford
is famous car idustry (model T.).. he invented
first solo west-to east conquest of the atlantic.. spirit of st louis was his plan... flew from y to paris in 33hrs and 39 min.. he had his baby kidnapped and killed)
First radio station
what bit buisness comes around
First scilent film
D.W. Griffiths...the birth of a nation.. big movie.. one of the first.. Promoted the KKK..
First talkie
The jazz singer.. al jolson was the star.
they become more social.. flappers.. less inhibited
Harlem Rennasance
authors like hughes and also arties put the spolight on the american fabric.. what america was really like beneath big buinesses
Presidential election of 1932
Hoover Vs. FDR(d) fdr wins
Eleanor Roosevelt
the most active first lady in history. She gave speaches and wrote a newspaper column. She battled for the impoverished and the oppressed
concerned with the "forgotten man" Put in the new deal to help them
Brains Trust
a small group of reform-minded intellectuals. they were predominantly youngish college professors, who, as a kind of kitchen cabinet, later authored much of the new deal legislation... many of FDR's speaches were written by them
who suffered the worst from the depression
black americans
day he was sworn in
declared a nationwide banking holiday, march 6-10 1933, as a prelude to the opening the banks on a sounder basis. They can only open if they pass inspection saying they are ready to be reopened... he then summoned congress into special session
Hundred Days
march 9- june 16 1933. period when members of the Democratic congress made laws to bused economy. Many came from progressivism
The New Deal
aimed at the three R
s- Relief, recovery and reform. Ultimatley brough in things such as unemployment insurance, oldage insurance, minimum-wage regulations, conservation and development of natural resources, and restrictions on child labor.
ready to okay bills drafted by the white house. gave the president a lot of power
Emergency Banking Relief Act of 1933
The new law invested the president with power to regulate banking transactions and foreign exchange and to repoen banks capable of meeting financial obligations
Fireside chats
thirty famous addresses on the radio that Roosevelt gave
Glass-Steagall Banking Reform Act
a) banks can no longer invest money in Wall Streetregulating investments of banks
b) FDIC (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation) is created; insures $5000 of the money you put in the bank
he ordered all private holdings of gold to be surrendered to the treasury in exchange for paper currency and then took the nation off the gold standard
Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC)
provided employment in freshair government camps in the west for 3 million uniformed young men. They did things such as folld control, firefighting, and swamp drainage. They send money home and money starts trickling back into economy.
Federal Emergency Relief Act
aim was immediate relief rather than long range recovered (Federal Emergency Relief Administration)
Federal Emergency Relief Administration
run by Harry L. Hopkins. they granted 3 billon to the states for the direct dole payments r preferably for wages on work projects
Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA)
It also established Parity prices. establishes the Agricultural Adjustment Administration—helped farmers meet their obligations in paying mortgages on their land by giving out VERY low interest loans; set an artificial price on goods (to bring some stability, and keep supply equal to demand—competition is reduced, but you can’t really deal with competition during such an economic crisisit’ll at least help you to break even); start paying farmers to not farm so that supply is reduced, which is a Subsidy (give someone money to not work) it was finally killed by the supreme court by declaring its regulatory taxation provisions unconstitutional
Home owners loan corperation (HOLC)
designed to refinance mortgages on nonfarm homes and assisted about a million badly pinched households. The angency not only bailed out mortgage-holding bankds, it also bolted the political loyalties of relieved middle-class homeowneres securely to the democratic party
civil works administration (cwa)
a branch of the FERA, also run by hopkins. designed to provide purely temporary jobs during the cruel winter emergency.
Father Charles Coughlin
A catholic priest in Michigan who publicially (on radio) denouced the new deal.
Senator Huey P. Long (kingfish)
made a share our wleath program which promised to make every man a king. every family was supposed to recieve 5000. He worried the president because he could out promise him
Dr. Francis E. Townsend of California
promised that supposedily every person over sixty would recieve $200 a month, provied that the money be wpont within the month
Works Progress Administration(WPA)
worked on employment on useful projects. launched under hopkins. it spent 11 billion on public buildings, bridges, and hard surfaced roads
John Steinbeck
wrote the grapes of wrath
National Recovery Administration
authorized by the emergency congress. it was to combine immediate relief with longrange recovery and reform. it was designed to assist industry, labor, and unemployment. max hours of labor hours. Workers were guarenteed the right to organize and bargain thorugh representatives. The yelow dog (anti union) contact was forbidden.. supreme court eventually shoots it down.. Blue eagle symbol
Schechter "sick chicken" decision
the justices said that congress could not bind law making powers. They declared that congressinal control of interstate commerce could not apply to a local fowl buisness
Public Works administration (PWA)
inteded both for industrial recovery and for unemployment relief. It was headed by Harold L. Ickes (progressive). helped build public buildings, highways, and parkways
Grand Coulee Dam on the Columbia River
the largest structure since the great wall of china... it created more electrical power than the entire TVA- in the regoin with little industry and no market for additional power.
21st amendment
initally he just made it 3.2 legal to boost economy until amendment was passed but once passed.. it bosted economy
Soil Conservation and Domestic Allotment Act of 1936
the withdrawal of acreage from production was now achieved by paying farmers to plant soil-conserving crops or let their land lie fallow (supreme court approved it)
The second Agricultural Adjustment Act
if growers observed acreage restrictions on specified commodities like cotton and wheat, they would be eligibile for parity payments. It was designed to give farmes not only a fairer price but a more substantial share of national income.
was the price set for a product that gave it the same real value that it had had in earliar years
Dust Bowl
1933 Drought struck states of the trans-mississippi great plains
The Frazier-Lemke Farm Bankruptcy act
made possible a suspension of martgage foreclosures for give years, but it was voided the next year by the supreme court
Resettlement Administration
charged with the task of removing near-farmless farmes to better land. and more than 200 million tress were planted on bare praieres by young ment of the Civilian Conservation Corps
Indian Reorganization Act of 1934
(premoted by John Collier, Commisioner of Indian Affairs) the new law enouraged tribes to establish local self-government and to preserve their native crafts and traditions. the act also helped to stop the loss of Inidan lands and revived tribes- interest in their identity and culture.
Truth In Securites Act/ Federal Securites Act
required promoters to trasmit to the investor sworn information regarding the soundness of their stocks and bonds
The securities and Exchange Comission (SEC)
designed as a watch dog administractive agency. Stock markets were to operate more as trading marts and less as gambling casinos
33 act-tells buisnesses that want to sell stock that from now they have to be trasparent, open your books to the public, print an annual report of how much money you made, spent, and if youre debt yso our investors whats goin on
34 act- you must register with the government
Public Utility Holding Company Act of 1935
got rid of bloated growth of buisness, excepot with needed
Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA)
Tennessee Valley Authority; provides federal money to build damns and energy resources (electricity), which provides jobs, electricity to people in the area, and puts money into the economy; electrical power beings people into the 20th century. This provied oportunity for employment which reforming monopolies. It also brought in low cost houseing, the restoration of eroded soil, reforestation, and flood control. Created in 1933 by Senator George W. Norris of Nebraska.
People said that the low cost was from dishonest bookeeping and the absence of taxes
Farm Secrity Administration
set up camps to house people of oklahoma
Federal Housing Administration
set up by FDR in 1934. It stimulated the building industry by small loans to householders, both for improvements and completion
The United States Houseing Authority
designed to lend money to states or communities for low-cost construction.
Problem with USHA
new buildings fell shor tof needs
Social Security Act of 1935
provided for the federal state unempolyment insurence. It provided security for old age and specific categories of retired workers were to reieve regular payments from D.C. (10-85 permonth) and were financed by a payroll on both employers and employees. Provision was also made for the blind, the physically handicapped, delinquent childrend, and other dependents
Wagner/National Labor Relations Act of 1935
this law created a new National Relations Board for aministrative purposes and reasserted the right of labor to engage in strikes and bargain collegectively through prepresentatives of its choice
Natoonal Labor Relations Board leader
John L Lewis.
Memorial Day Massacre of 1937
at the repbulic steel company in chicago. Police fired upont pickets and workers.. many dead and wounded
Fair Labor Standards Act (Wages and Hours Bill)
Industries involved in interstate comerce were to set up a minimum-wage and maximum-hour levels. Labor by children under sixteen was forbidden.
Committee for Industrial Organization
broke from the American Federation of Labor under John L Lewis. -unions
Presidential campaign of 1936
Alfred M Landon vs. FDR... He won by a landslide. He won because he appealed to the forgotten man whom he never forgot.
Change in inaugeration
moved from march 4 to january 20
FDR and the Supreme court
asked congress to add a new justice to the supreme court for every member over seventy who would not retired. (max membership was 9 then) because he said it was behind in work.. although proved untrue. however Justice Roberts started voting liberally, switching the vote.. now allowing to have min wage for woman and one justice was replaced (he resigned) by new dealer, Justice Black.. it would mean having 15 judges.. This plan backfired..
depression within the depression.. caused by government policies. A new Social Security tax began to bite into payrolls.
planned deficit spending to stimulate the ecomony
Reoganization Act
made by congress.. gave FDR limited powers for administrative reform
Hatch Act of 1939
barred federal administrative officials from active poltical campaigning and soliciting. It also forbade the use of government funds for political purposes as well as the collection of campaign contrivutions from people recieving relief payments.
reciprocal trade agreemtns
they get us to sign an agreement with other countries saying that they will lower tarrifs if the us does the same.
Frances Perkins
first femaile cabinet member, secretary of labor
1)the japanese invade manchuria
2)rise of Hilter in Nazi Germany and Mussolini in Italy (facism on the rise)
3) the spanish Civil war (fransico franco setting up rebellion against standing government)
Americans reaction and congress' reaction
scared that we'll get pulled into the war.. isolationist and tie FDRs hands
Neutraility acts
tied FDRs hands..
cash and carry
set up by FDR to go around neutraility acts.. you pay in cash and pick it up in your own ship to get weapons and supplies
September 1 1939
Nazi Germany invades Poland.. because of this invasion, alliences and treaties all get triggered; WWII officially begins in Europe, America refuses to get involved
Selective service act
the first step towards a draft. All 18 year old males have to be put on file for the reserves, which is a step towards an army; first one set the registration between 21-35 and later changed to 18-45
Prime minister in england
The Destroyer deal
britian is being bombed every day but FDR cant really help. he does agree to accept 8 navel babes (leased for 99 years) in excahgne for 50 destroyers from WWI which gives their commercial ships a military escprt against Uboast
1940 Presidental election
FDR had already been in office for 2 terms.. but he was looking around and knows he cannot leave US now. so he breaks tradition. he says if you are in the middle of a horse race you dont switch jockeys. He ran against Wendell Wilkie. they elect FDR because they knew him
lends the british more weapons until end of war, when they'd get it back... used the analogy that if your neighbor's house is on fire, you lend them your garden hose
Secret meeting in Atlantic
FDR and Churchill meet.. FDR desguised it as a leisurely boat trip and slips onto a navel outfit and head out to the N. atlantic on the "Prince of Whales".. they sign the atlantic charter
atlantic charter
signed by FDR and churchill saying that they are not in this to gain terretory but to get rid of facism
FDR turns attention to Pacific
the japanese continued to expand their empire. in 1941 they went into french indo-china which gave them a base of operations to go bother phillipeans. As a response FDr gets congress to freeze all of japan's assets in US (all money invested in us)the Japanese need oild to generate military machinery. so FDR looks at Japanese expansion and is worried so he sets up a oil embargo
who is in command in japan
Emporer Hirogito was at the top, but much of the daily decision makin was done by the military gen. tojo kito.
reponse to embargo
they are infuriated. they go and take oil from asian countries and decide to hurt US badly.
Admiral Yamamoto
he studdied at harvard and said that if you want to knock the us down you will have to do it hard because if you dont then the US will rise back up and extremely angry
dec 7 41
pearl harbor-pacific naval fleet is nearly destroyed except for the air-craft carriers that were doing maneuvers that day
Us declares war
on japan and germany delcares war on america and so does italy
Japanese did not stop at pearl harbor
they also assulted guam and wake island.. they went into philippines and took serveral us marines
Bataan Death march
Philipeans was under control of Gen. Douglass McArthur who was the head of the entire pacific army.. he retreats to austrailia to regroup; the maries who are still in philipeans retreat to corregidor, hoping that someone would come to rescue them. the leader at corregidor surrenders; they are transferred to the mainland of philippines and forced to march to a prison camp. on the death march, you werent alloweed to eat or drink, if you were weaker you might collapse and depeding on where you were you could be shot or killed on the spot.. it depended on what soldier you were next to .. to protect the weakest, the strongest marines went to the outside to hide the weaker ones .
Battle of Midway
turning point, when US destroyed 4 integral aircraft carriers, we destroyed the japanese offensive and stuck them back on defensive. (turning point of war in pacific)
Plotting with Chruchill and fdr
they want to do a cross channel invasion but not ready by 42... stalin is pissed because he wants pressure off russia. (snow bails russia out)
Big deal officers in N. Africa
Gen. omar bradley and gen. goerge s. patton
Operation Torch
gives the military fighting experience.. fought in north africa
after africa
they cross mediterranean and hit italy (sicily)
Gen Rommel
was in charge of N africa on german side. he comspired to assassinate hiltar because they knew by the end of the war germany would be just a bomed out shell.. the plan failed and he killed himself to avoid being caught
part of france was a puttep government that swore loyalty to the nazis
Island Hopping
they would skip over islands that they didnt need to waste the blood on one or another, gain the airstrip on the islands so they can take off bombers to fly to japan to bom tokyo
Guadacanal, solom islands
horrible fighting and horrible conditions because it was during the rainy season
back to cross channal
now that N. Africa and Italy secure they can plan cross channel invasion
Issue with generals
FDR knows that whichever gen gives command will be hero throughout history. Gen george C. marshall is his right hand man and wants to reward him but he has a dilemma.. if he gives marshall the command he'll be stuck over in emgland and FDR wont have him in DC to help out. out of lyoalty marshall stays and suggests eisenhower to give command
June 6 1944... secret name was operation overlord.. horrible fighting.. once the beach-head is taken they dont get far for 3 weeks. Solders had to fight amidst hedgeros
ten foot tall hedges which bordered along fields through which they could be shot, but when they broke through beyond it.. there were fields that were also bound by hedges and they could just shoot right through the hedges.. so the US plowed them down
same weeks as dday
rome is liberated; moussolini is killed, body stung up with piani wire and dragged upside down through the streets of rome
august of 44
paris is liberated
battle of the bulge
the american line was n blegium, the germans massed most of their troops at the central point, knew it was the last attempt, want to drive through the lines and attack from behind.. it never broke just made a buldge
April 1945
FDR dies of cerebral hemorrhage.. death stuns the nation and truman takes over after FDR dies
VE Day
may 8 45
American troops and concentration camps
they grabbed german locals and froced them to look at what they had let go on and then forced them to bury the dead
The manhatten project
the code name for the atmic bom.. big contributers were einstien, ferme and oppenheimer
war in pacific
how big will the coset be to keep fighting.. (battle in okinawa) they are using kanikaze pilots..
Trumans decision
he uses it because without it there would be 1 mil more casualties
where are the bombs dropped
hiroshima and nagaskai
Japan surrenders
aboard the USS missouri.. witnessed by mcarthur.. aids the japanese in putting together a new constituion
reaction to bombing
1)harry truman is criminal for allowing a bomb like that on a city w/all the civilans 2)truman says that pre of us #1 reposnbities is to the troops.. when he heard it would take 1 mill on lives.. he felt it would make less cautialties.. if he had lost these lives.. he would probably be impeached immediately on charges of criminal negligence
German scientists after war
scatter to US and Ussr..
next war
cold war btw USSR and US