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10 Cards in this Set

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Describe Charlemagne
tall, muscular, heavy
round face, large eyes, long nose, stout neck, light hair
cheerful andn healthy except for the last four years of his life
masculine bearing and powerful, clear voice
amazing swimmer and horseback rider
intelligent and good rhetor although he could not write according to Einhard. Modern scholars believe this is false.
Many wives because he needed sons to continue his dynasty
Brutal man and the greatest warrior
Where and how did Charlemagne expand his empire?
50 campaigns
Brought northern France under empire
Muslims of Spain were restrained by marches
added most northwestern Germanic tribes in his 33 year war with the Saxons.
Added the Lombards of Italy in 773-774 because they were threatening the papacy.
Ended Bavarian independence and defeated the nomadic Avars, which led to the opening of the Danubian plain.
Waged war against the Byzantine Empire and aquired Venetia, excluding Venice, Istria and Dalmatia.
By 805 Charlemagne controlled all of northwestern Europe except Scandinavia
By what means did Charlemagne rule?
he had everything the Merovingians had except the civitas were called counties. The count who had all the powers as in the Merovingian government and that he maintained roads and bridges. Viscount governed the county in the count's absence. Missi dominici, agents to the lord king, wre the link b/t local officials and the central government. The empire was divided into visitorial districts. Missi dominici went to their assigned district to check on the count and the county's judicial system, finance, clergy activity and to organize bodies to control crime, moral conduct, the clergy, education, the poor, etc...
In the marches, Charlemagne appointed margraves who had the power to govern the marches.
What modern elements of government did Charlemagne lack and what did hold the society together?
Charlemagne lacked civil service, financial agencies and police and military bodies who kept internal order and fended off external threats. Charlemagne's governement was instead held together by dependent relationships cemented by oaths of loyalty
Marches
Marches were highly fortified areas often ruled by margraves during the rule of Charlemagne
Lombards
From 773-774 the Lombards threatened the papacy, causing Charlemagne to attack and conquer them.
The Song of Roland
in 778, Charlemagne suffered his only loss at Roncesvalles against the Basques. The Song is about Roland, the count who lost his rear guard, and how chivalric he was and how wonderful Charlemagne was as a ruler. The Song is based on legend and written in circa 1100. It portrays Charlemagne's popularity in centuries following his reign.
Missi dominici
Agents to the lord king.
Visited visitorial districts to check up on the count and the finance, judicial system and clergy activity. They also created bodies to control crime, moral conduct, the clergy, the poor and education. They linked the local officials and the central government during Charlemagne's rule
Margraves
In the marches, margraves often had the power to govern during Charlemagne's reign/
Political Augustinianism
800
Saint Augustine's theories on kingship that influenced Charlemagne's kingdom and the medieval and modern governments to follow.