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45 Cards in this Set

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What is Andrew Jackson's idea of democracy?
To offer "equal protection and equal benefits" to ALL white males (not just property owning.

This was spread beyond the elited; no class was favored over the other.
In what years was Jackson elected?
1828 and 1832
What is unqiue about the Democratic Party.
-The oldest politcal party system in America.

-Started as Jackson and his follwers.

-They honored "honest workers, simple farmers and forthright businessmen."

-They were against "corrupt, monopolistic, aristocratic forces of established wealth."
Explain the First National Democratic Convention.
In 1832 the first nation democratic convention took place to re-nominate Andrew Jackson.
What is the Whig Party?
-In the 1830s, a new two-party system emerged.
-Whigs were Jackson's opponents.
-The Whigs called Jackson "King Andrew I"
-They adopted their name from the Whig Party in England that worked to limit the power of the King.

-Favored expanding power of the federal government, industrial and commerical development.
Explain the Spoil System.
-Jackson created it.
-Gave government jobs to personal friends and supporters as political rewards.
-Jackson wanted to reduce the power of the national government.
Explain the Kitchen Cabinet.
-Jackson created it.
-His personal political advisors.
Explain Calhoun v. Jackson with Eaton's wife.
-Jackson named John Eaton Secretary of War
-The Administration Wives (led by John Calhoun's wife) would not allow John Eaton's wife who was an ex-tavern owner into their club.
-Jackson demanded that Calhoun make his wifre except Mrs. Eaton
-Calhoun refused.
-Jackson was so mad he appointed Martin Van Buren (Calhoun's rival) as the next democratic candidate to succeed him as president.
-Calhoun got mad and became the first vice president to resign.
Explain Calhoun v. Jackson with the taxes.
-New tariff imposed in 1828 on the states.
-John Calhoun's theory stated since states created the national government, then states, not the courts or Congess had rights over states in regards to federal laws.
-South Carolina wanted to nullify the tariff.
-Calhoun who was from SC supported them because they threatend to leave the Union.
-Jackson compromised in 1833 to revise the tariff.
Who was Martin Van Buren?
-Named Jackson's successor.
-Won election of 1836 and was the only Democratic candiate the rest were whigs.
-Contributed to the Indian Removal process by sending in an army to escort the remaining cherokee out of their homes.
-Part of the free soil party.
What is the Free Soil Party?
-Political party formed to oppose slavery on nonslavery territory.
-They were not abolitionists, but wanted to keep blacks out of certain territories.
-Provided presidental candiates in the elections of 1848 (Van Buren) and 1852 (Hale).
Explain the Bank of the United States.
-The bank monopolized federal government deposits and state banks.
-Jackson was against the Bank and was not planning to renew the charter for it.
-Nicholas Biddle (runner of the bank) granted banking favors to the elites in an effort to save the bank.
-Jackson removed the federal deposits from the bank and it closed.
-This caused an unstable banking system for several years.
What did Andrew Jackson say about the Indians that led to the removal?
"No state could achieve proper culture civilization and progress as long as Indians remained in its boundaries."
Explain the Indian Removal Act 1830.
-This act forced all natives who lived east of the Mississippi River to move west of the Mississippi River to Indian Territory (Oklahoma)
-These tribes were given compensation for their land but it was not nearly what the land was worth.
-They were given unwanted land.
What was the economical significance of 1835-1837?
-The first and only time that the U.S. government was out of debt with a surplus.
-The surplus was given to states for construction of highways, railroads, and canals.
-State banks began to suffer because of withdrawals of federal funds.
-Any money owned to the government was to be given in gold/silver
-This caused a depression that lasted 5 years.
Who was the first Whig Party president and what was his time served?
-In the election of 1840 William Henry Harrison was the Whig Candidate
-Log Cabin Campaign
-Harrison defeated Van Buren and became the first Whig president
-But he died one month later after taking office from pneumonia.
-John Tyler succedded him
Which president lost all of his cabinet memebers and why?
-John Tyler
-Was a former democrat and his presidency mirrored views of Andrew Jackson
-Because of this all of his cabinet members resigned
-He replaced them with "ex-democrats"
They eventually rejoined the Democratic Party.
What was considered the "Deep South."
-Mississippi
-Georgia
-Alabama
-Louisiana
Who was William Lloyd Garrison?
Was the creator of the abolitionist newspaper "liberator"
Who was Frederick Douglass?
-Escaped slavery
-Purchased his freed from his master so he would not be chased
-Had an anti-slavery newspaper "North Star"
-The actual North Star led slaves to the northern states
Who is Harriet Beecher Stowe?
-White abolitionist
-Wrote "Uncle Tom's Cabin"
-The book brought to life how the slaves werereally treated and enlightened ignorant northerners of slavery.
-She became a hero to many people.
-Many claimed she caused the civil war.
-When Abraham Lincoln met her he said, "so you're the little lady that started this great war"
Who is Elijah Lovejoy?
Editor of an abolitionist newspaper
-he was repeatedly victimized and eventually murdered in Illonois.
Who is John Brown?
-A white abolitionist who gathered 6 followers and murdered 5 white settlers (rolling kansas) in kansas who were pro-slavery.
-He did this because kansas was being divided into pro-slavery and against slavery supporters and the against supporters were being harrassed.
-This was called Bleeding Kansas.
-In 18591 he and 18 follwers attacked and seized the u.s. arsenal at Harper's Ferry, VA. to cause a slave uprising.
-He did not get the support he need and some of his men were killed.
-He surrendered and was hung by the orders of Robert E. Lee
Whos is Harriet Tubman?
idk
Explain the Fugitive Slave Law Act.
Now northerners who helped escaped slaves could be fined.
Explain Kansas-Nebraska Act?
-Both states came in under popular soverignty as free states.
-Kansas eventually became a slave state though.
-This caused problems.
Explain Bleeding Kansas.
-Free staters v. Pro-slavery residents.
-Free-staters in kansas formed their own society called Lawerence.
-They applied for statehood but were denied.
-Pro-slavery federal marshalls then destoryed the town of Lawerence
-John Brown and his supporters then went there and murdered 5 pro-slavery white settlers.
What is Manifest Destiny?
-United states was destined to expand west and God had given them that right.
-By 1849 the U.S. had acquired almost all of the present day United State (continental) through the idea of Manifest Destiny.
What territory belonged to Mexico that the U.S. acquired?
-oregon territory
-texas
-new mexico territory
-utah territory
-california
Explain the Mexican-American War.
-Pres. Polk wanted to buy off Mexican residents in teh California and New Mexico territory which were owned by Mexico
-Mexicans refused.
-Polk then ordered troops into New Mexico thus starting a war.
-Mexico then ceded over California and New Mexico and the U.S. paid $15 million for it.
Why is Tennessee called the volunteer state?
Because it had the most volunteers than any other state for the Mexican-American War.
Explain the California Gold Rush.
-1848 gold was found in the sierra nevada mountains
-thousands flocked to the mountains of california
-they were known as the 49ers.
-the gold rush helped populate california.
Explain the Compromise of 1850.
Ended slave trade in Washington, D.C. to try and set an example for the rest of the southern states to end the domestic slave trade.
-Texas was admitted as a slave state
-California was admitted as a free state.
-new territories entered under popular soverignty.
What is popular soverignty?
Choice of coming in as a free state or a slave state by popular vote.
What happened in Texas?
Texas belonged to Mexico and U.S. offered to purchase it but Mexicans refused.
-Mexican government did allow Americans to purchase land in Texas and be exempt from taxes.
-White settlers and their slaves flocked to Texas and they soon outnumbered the Mexicans.
-Mexican government then banned further americans coming into texas.
-Fighting hen occured between the resident mexicans and americans and the americans claimed their independence from Mexico.
-The president of Texas was captured by americans and forced to sign a treaty giving texas its independence.
-Texas applied for statehood 2x but were denied because they applied as a slave state.
-Northners did not want another slave state in the union.
What happend with Dred Scott Descion?
-Dred Scott was a slave owned by a Missouri resident who took Scott with him to live in the free territory of Illnois for awhile.
-Later returning to Missouri, the owner died.
-Scott then sued the owner's wife declaring his residency in the free territory and claiming his freedom.
-Scott won his case and then the state supreme court reversed their descion when John Stanford, Scott's previous owner's brother claimed Scott as his inherited slave.
-So scott remained a slave
-It was also ruled that the Missouri Compromise was unconstitutional because congress had no power to ban slavery above the 36th parallel.
Explain the Republicain Party.
-Formed in 1851
-Appealed to the free states, which controlled the electoral votes.
-It denounded slavery as a "relic of barbarism"
-it argued; "the question has passed on from that slavery for negro servants to that of tyranny. over free white men." (white on white crime)
Explain the Election of 1860.
-Southereners believed that the newly formed republican party was behind john brown's raid.
-The south didn't think they were safe in the union
-The southern democratic party was divided having 2 candiates.
-Brecking Ridge - popular soverignty
-Stephen Douglass - Pro slavery
-Republican candiate - Abraham lincoln
-Lincoln believed slavery was morally wrong but he was not an abolitionist.
-He did not think blacks were ready or prepared to live on eqaul terms with whites
-lincoln said that "a country divded could not stand: the u.s. would either be a slave country or a free country, not both."
Explain the new south.
-With a republican as president (lincoln), the south believed their right to have slavery was hopeless.
-They thought there was no common good between the north and south.
-Within weeks the south succeeded from the union forming its own country: the confederate states of america.
-Jefferson Davis served as president
-Alexander Stephens served as vice president
-The capital was first in Montgomery, Alabama but later moved to Richmond, Virgina.
Who is Harriet Tubman?
-Escaped slave
-Made 17 trips to help rescue slaves and take them to the north
-Fainting spells
-Repeatedly risked her life to free them
-Was never caught.
Explain cotton in the south.
-3/4 of the world's supply
-Slaves grew 75% of it
Define Slave Codes.
-State legislatures constructed slave codes (laws) that required that required the total submission of slaves to their masters and to white society in general.
-The laws underlined that authority of all whites, not just masters.
-Any white could correct slaves who did not stay "in their place."
What are some arguements for slavery?
-"Necessary evil."
-"Postive good"
-In places that slavery had been abolished the condition of the blacks instead of being improved was worse while in slave states the slaves had improved in every respect.
-In the south slaves were legal property and wasn't the secruity of property the bedrock of American liberty?
-Compared the south to the great empires like Romans and Greeks that were once great societies that were built on slavery.
-Argued that the bible sanctioned slavery.
-Said there were humane relations between slaves and their masters because the slaves were valuable objects that the masters wanted to protect.
-Salvery was a mass civilizing effort that lifted blacks from barbarism and savageness and taught thm disciplined work and save their souls by turning them christain.
Explain the jobs of House Slaves.
-Few of them
-Cooked
-cleaned
-babysat
-washed clothes
-Always on call
-Etc.
Explain the jobs of field slaves.
-Farm work
-clearing land
-breaking land
-picking cotton
-plow
-split wood.