Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/77

Click to flip

77 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Ashoka The Great
-200 BCE
-ruled over most of India (the Maurya Empire)
Augustus
known as Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus (English Octavian; Latin: C•IVLIVS•C•F•CAESAR•OCTAVIANVS) prior to 27 BC, was the first and among the most important of the Roman Emperors. Although he preserved the outward form of the Roman Republic, he ruled as an autocrat for 41 years, longer than any subsequent Emperor;
avatars
In Hindu philosophy, an avatar (also spelt as avatara) (Sanskrit: अवतार, avatāra), most commonly refers to the incarnation (bodily manifestation) of a higher being (deva), or the Supreme Being (God) onto planet Earth.
Bantu
Bantu is a general term for over 400 different ethnic groups in Africa, from Cameroon to South Africa, united by a common language family (the Bantu languages) and in many cases common customs.
Bhagavad-Gita
The Bhagavad Gita (Sanskrit भगवद्‌ गीता Bhagavad Gītā, "Song of God") is a Sanskrit text from the Bhishma Parva of the Mahabharata epic. Due to differences in recensions they may be numbered in the full text of the Mahabharata as chapters 6.25 – 42[1] or as chapters 6.23-40[2]. According to the recension of the Gita commented on by Shankaracharya, the number of verses is 700, but there is evidence to show that some old manuscripts had 745 verses.[3]
bodhisattvas
In Buddhist thought, a bodhisattva (Sanskrit) or bodhisatta (Pali) Thai: โพธิสัตว์ phothisat) is a being who is dedicated to attaining Nirvana. Bodhisattva literally means "enlightenment ('bodhi') being ('sattva')" in Sanskrit; it also refers to the Buddha himself in his previous lives.
Boethius
Anicius Manlius Severinus Boethius[1] (480–524 or 525) was a Christian philosopher of the 6th century. He was born in Rome to an ancient and important family which included the emperor Olybrius and many consuls. His father, Flavius Manlius Boethius, was consul in 487 after Odoacer deposed the last Western Roman Emperor.
Brahma
is the Hindu god (deva) of creation and one of the Trimurti, the others being Vishnu and Shiva.
Brahman
is the concept of the supreme spirit found in Hinduism. Brahman is the unchanging, infinite, immanent, and transcendent reality which is the Divine Ground of all matter, energy, time, space, being, and everything beyond in this universe.
brahmin
Cast system level
a title given to an individual who was learned in the holy scriptures and had demonstrated a high level of knowledge in the Vedas
Buddhism
Buddhism is a dharmic religion and a philosophy.[1] Buddhism is also known as Buddha Dharma or Dhamma, which means the "teachings of the Awakened One" in Sanskrit and Pali, languages of ancient Buddhist texts. Buddhism was founded around the fifth century BCE by Siddhartha Gautama, hereafter referred to as "the Buddha".
caesaropapism
Caesaropapism is the idea of combining the power of secular government with, or making it supreme to, the spiritual authority of the Christian Church; especially concerning the connection of the Christian Church with government. In its extreme form, it is a political theory in which the head of state, notably the Emperor ('Caesar', by extension an 'equal' King), is also the supreme head of the church ('papa', pope or analogous religious leader).
caliphate
A caliphate, is the Islamic form of government representing the political unity and leadership of the Muslim world.
castes
Caste systems are traditional, hereditary systems of social restriction and social stratification, enforced by law or common practice, based on endogamy, occupation, economic status, race, ethnicity, etc.
Constantine
Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus[2] (27 February ca. 280[1]–22 May 337 AD), commonly known as Constantine I, (among Roman Catholics) and Constantine the Great, or Saint Constantine
Constantinople
was the capital of the Roman Empire (330-395), the Byzantine/East Roman Empire (395-1204 and 1261-1453), the Latin Empire (1204-1261), and the Ottoman Empire (1453-1922).
Corpus Juris Civilis
The Corpus Juris Civilis (Body of Civil Law) is the modern name for a collection of fundamental works in jurisprudence, issued from 529 to 534 by order of Justinian I, Byzantine Emperor.

This code compiled all of the existing imperial constitutiones (imperial pronouncements having the force of law), back to the time of Hadrian.
Dasas
The Dāsa are a tribe identified as the enemies of the Aryan tribes in the Rigveda. The word Dāsa, later acquired derogatory connotations, meaning 'servant', implying that they were subordinated by the Aryans.
dharma
The Sanskrit term Dharma (help·info) (Devnagari: धर्म; Pali Dhamma; Chinese 法 fǎ) is the underlying order in nature and human life and behaviour considered to be in accord with that order. Ethically, it means 'right way of living' or 'proper conduct,' especially in a religious sense.
Epictetus
Epictetus (Greek: Επίκτητος; ca. 55–ca. 135) was a Greek Stoic philosopher. He was probably born at Hierapolis, Phrygia, and lived most of his life in Rome until his exile to Nicopolis in northwestern Greece, where he died. The name given by his parents, if one was given, is not known - the word epiktetos in Greek simply means "acquired."
Gupta Dynasty
The Gupta Empire was one of the largest political and military empires in ancient India. It was ruled by members of the Gupta dynasty from around 320 to 600 CE and covered most of Northern India, the region presently in the nation of Pakistan and what is now western India and Bangladesh. The time of the Gupta Empire is referred to as Golden Age of India in science, mathematics, astronomy, religion and Indian philosophy.
hadith
Hadith (الحديث transliteration: al-ḥadīth) are traditions relating to the words and deeds of Muhammad. Hadith collections are regarded as important tools for determining the Sunnah, or Muslim way of life, by all traditional schools of jurisprudence.
Han Dynasty
The Han Dynasty (Traditional Chinese: 漢朝; Simplified Chinese: 汉朝; Hanyu Pinyin: Hàn cháo; Wade-Giles: Han Ch'ao; 206 BC–220 AD) followed the Qin Dynasty and preceded the Three Kingdoms in China. The Han Dynasty was ruled by the prominent family known as the Liu (劉) clan.
Hannibal
Hannibal, the son of Hamilcar Barca, (247 BC – ca. 183 BC[1][2][3][4][5]) was a Carthaginian military commander and tactician, later also working in other professions, who is popularly credited as one of the finest commanders in history.
hijra
Hijrah, as an Arabic word meaning migration
Hinduism
Hinduism (known as Hindū Dharma in some modern Indian languages[1]) is a religion which originated on the Indian subcontinent. In contemporary usage Hinduism is also referred to as Sanātana Dharma (सनातन धर्म), a Sanskrit phrase meaning "eternal law".[2]
Huns
were an early confederation of Central Asian equestrian nomads or semi-nomads.[1] Some of these Eurasian tribes moved into Europe in the 4th century, most famously under Attila the Hun.
Jainism
is a dharmic religion and philosophy originating in Ancient India.
Justinian
as Saint Justinian the Great; c. 482/483 – November 13 or November 14, 565) was Eastern Roman Emperor from 527 until his death, and second member of the Justinian Dynasty, after his uncle Justin I.

Justinian is one of the most historically significant rulers of Late Antiquity. Constituting a distinct epoch in the history of the Byzantine Empire,
Kharma
Karma (Sanskrit kárma, kárman- "act, action, performance"[1]; Pāli kamma) (pronunciation (help·info)) is the concept of "action" or "deed" in Dharmic religions understood as denoting the entire cycle of cause and effect described in Hindu, Jain, Sikh and Buddhist philosophies.
caliph
is the head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the leader of the Islamic Ummah, or global Islamic nation.
Kong Fu Zi
Confucius
Krishna
is a deity worshipped across many traditions of Hinduism. He is usually depicted as a young cowherd boy playing a flute (such as in the Bhagavata Purana) or a youthful prince giving philosophical direction (as in the Bhagavad Gita).
Laws of Manu
Some of these laws codify the Hindu caste system and discuss the "stages of life for a twice-born man". It explains itself as a discourse given by Sage Manu to rishis having begged him to enlighten them on the topic.
Legalism
. It is actually rather a pragmatic political philosophy, with maxims like "when the epoch changed, legalism is the act of following all laws", and its essential principle is one of jurisprudence.
Mahavira
(599-527 BC, though possibly 549-477 BC) is the name most commonly used to refer to the Indian sage Vardhamana (Skt, "increasing") who established what are today considered to be the central tenets of Jainism.
Marcus Aurelius
Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus (April 26, 121[1] – March 17, 180) was Roman Emperor from 161 to his death. He was the last of the "Five Good Emperors" who governed the Roman Empire from 96 to 180, and is also considered one of the most important stoic philosophers.
Mauryan Dynasty
The Maurya Empire (322–185 BC), ruled by the Mauryan dynasty, was the largest and most powerful political and military empire of ancient India.
Mecca
The city is revered by Muslims for containing the holiest site of Islam, the Masjid al-Haram, and a pilgrimage that involves an extended visit to the city is required of all able-bodied Muslims who can afford to go at least once in an individual's lifetime.
Mohammed
was the founder of Islam and is regarded by Muslims as the last messenger and prophet of God (Arabic: الله Allah).[5] Muslims believe that he was not the creator of a new religion, but the restorer of the original, uncorrupted monotheistic faith of Adam, Abraham and others.
Mokshahttp://www.flashcardexchange.com/mycards/add/475251
Add Flashcards
refers to liberation from the cycle of death and rebirth and all of the suffering and limitation of worldly existence. In Hindu philosophy, it is seen as a transcendence of phenomenal being, of any sense of consciousness of time, space, and causation (karma). It is not seen as a soteriological goal in the same sense as in a Christian context, but signifies a dissolution of the sense of self as an egoistic personality: the undoing of conditioned mentality-materiality or nama-roopa.
Monophysitism
is the christological position that Christ has only one nature, as opposed to the chalcedonian position which holds that Christ has two natures, one divine and one human.
Monsoon
A monsoon is a rainy season which lasts for several months and has lasting climatic effects
Niger-Kongo
huh?
Nirvana
is a Sanskrit word that literally means "to cease blowing" (as when a candle flame ceases to flicker) and/or extinguishing (that is, of the passions).

It is a mode of being that is free from mind-contaminants (kilesa) such as lust, anger or craving; a state of pure consciousness and bliss unobstructed by psychological conditioning (sankhara).
On the City of God
Written by St. Augistine
paterfamilias
The pater familias was the highest ranking male in a Roman household.
Paul
huh?
Punic Wars
The Punic Wars were a series of three wars fought between Rome and Carthage. They are known as the Punic Wars because the Latin term for Carthaginian was Punici (older Poenici, from their Phoenician ancestry). As well Carthage is a corruption from the Phoenician Karth Hadasht (New City).
Qin Dynasty
was preceded by the feudal Zhou Dynasty and followed by the Han Dynasty in China.
Quran
Muslims believe the Qur'an to be the book of divine guidance and direction for mankind, consider the text in its original Arabic, to be the literal word of Allah[2] revealed to Muhammad over a period of twenty-three years[3][4], and view the Qur'an as God's final revelation to humanity.[5][6]
Ramadan
The fourth pillar of Islam, which is fasting, is practiced during the month of Ramadan. Ramadan is derived from an Arabic word for intense heat and sun-scorched ground.
Romanesque
having roman features
Samsara
refers to the cycle of reincarnation or rebirth in Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, Sikhism and other related religions.
Shi Huangdi
was king of the Chinese State of Qin from 247 BCE to 221 BCE (officially still under the Zhou Dynasty), and then the first emperor of a unified China from 221 BCE to 210 BCE, ruling under the name the First Emperor
Shi’ite
is the second largest denomination of the Islamic faith after Sunni Islam. Shias adhere to the teachings of Muhammad and the religious guidance of his family (who are referred to as the Ahl al-Bayt) or his descendents known as Shi'a Imams
Shiva
is considered to be the supreme deity in Shaivism, a denomination of Hinduism. Many Hindus such as those of Smarta tradition are free to accept various manifestations of the divine as their chosen deity for worship, and those who prefer Shiva are called Shaivas (Sanskrit Śaiva).[1
Silk Road
The Silk Road, or Silk Route, is an interconnected series of ancient trade routes through various regions of the Asian continent mainly connecting Chang'an (today's Xi'an) in China, with Asia Minor and the Mediterranean. It extends over 8,000 km (5,000 miles) on land and sea. Trade on the Silk Route was a significant factor in the development of the great civilizations of China, Egypt, Mesopotamia, Persia, India, and Rome, and helped to lay the foundations for the modern world.
St. Ambrose
Ambrose was a citizen of Rome, born between about 337 and 340 in Trier, Germany, into a Christian family. He was the son of a praetorian prefect of Gallia Narbonensis[1]; his mother was a woman of intellect and piety. There is a legend that as an infant, a swarm of bees settled on his face while he lay in his cradle, leaving behind a drop of honey.
St. Augustine
which?
St. Basil
Basil of Caesarea (between 329 and 333 - January 1, 379), also called Saint Basil the Great (Greek: Άγιος Βασίλειος ο Μέγας), was Bishop of Caesarea, a leading churchman in the 4th century
St. Benedict
(c. 480 AD – 547 AD) was an Italian saint, the founder of the Benedictine order.

Benedict founded twelve monasteries, the best known of which was his first monastery at Monte Cassino in the mountains of southern Italy
St. Jerome
ca. 342 – September 30, 419; Greek: Ευσέβιος Σωφρόνιος Ιερόνυμος, Latin: Eusebius Sophronius Hieronymus) is best known as the translator of the Bible from Greek and Hebrew into Latin. He also was a Christian apologist.
St. Simeon Stylite
Lived on a pillar.
Sufism
Sufism is a mystic tradition within Islam and encompasses a diverse range of beliefs and practices dedicated to divine love and the cultivation of the heart.
"Sufism" has been defined as a type of knowledge by the great Sufi masters.
Sunnis
Sunni Muslims are the largest denomination of Islam.
T’ang Dynasty
The Tang Dynasty (18 June 618 – 4 June 907 AD) was preceded by the Sui Dynasty and followed by the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period in China. The dynasty was founded by the li family, who seized opportunity in the decline and collapse of the Sui Empire.
Taoism
is the English name referring to a variety of related Chinese philosophical and religious traditions and concepts. These traditions influenced East Asia for over two thousand years and some have spread internationally
The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea
is a Greek periplus, describing navigation and trading opportunities from Roman Egyptian ports like Berenice along the coast of the Red Sea, and others along East Africa and India. The text has been ascribed to different dates between the 1st and 3rd century CE, but a mid first century date is now the most commonly accepted.
Ulama
refers to the educated class of Muslim scholars engaged in the several fields of Islamic studies. They are best known as the arbiters of shari‘a law.
Umayyad Dynasty
whose name derives from Umayya ibn Abd Shams, the great-grandfather of Muawiyah I, was the first dynasty of the Muslim Caliphate, 661–750.
umma
) was an ancient city in Sumer, best known for its long frontier conflict with Lagash. In 2350BC, Lugal Zagessi moved the capital of Sumer from Umma to Uruk.
Varna
Varna (Bulgarian: Варна) is the largest city on the Bulgarian Black Sea Coast, third-largest in Bulgaria after Sofia and Plovdiv, and 79th-largest in the European Union, with a population of 357,752 ([1]).
Vedic Age
is the period in the history of India when the sacred Vedic Sanskrit texts such as the Vedas were composed. The associated culture, sometimes referred to as Vedic civilization
Vishnu
also known as Narayana is the Supreme Being or Ultimate Reality for Vaishnavas and a manifestation of Brahman in the Advaita or Smarta traditions of Hinduism.
Warring States Period
also known as the Era of Warring States, covers the period from some time in the 5th century BC to the unification of China by the Qin Dynasty in 221 BC.
Xiongnu
were a nomadic people from Central Asia, generally based in present day Mongolia and China.