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48 Cards in this Set

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Pre-Industrial Economy
1. Agriculture was predominate but not productive (smaller cities and towns because of food shortages.
2. Artisianry- made goods by hands
3. Cottage Industry- Produce goods by hand then sell for profit.
17th and 18th Century Changes
1.Agricultural Revolution
2. Putting-Out system due to introduction of new technology.
3. Manufacturing and Commercial investing
4. Monarchy and Acadamy of Sciences.
Describe the Agricultural Revolution
Came around because of Famine and Hunger. Key: Crop Rotation. Problem: Yeild Collapse. Solution: Alternate-crops with wheat.
17th and 18th century changes in Great Britain
1. 1st Central Banking System located in England (Bank of England)
2. Used canals and rivers to communicate and trade
3. A political Revolution ocurred changing Britain from a monarchy to having a parliament make laws.
Britains Internal and External Markets
Canada, Australia, India
John Kay
Flying Shuttle
James Hargreaves
Spinning Jenny
Richard Awkright
Water frame
Thomas Newcomen
Atmosperic Engine
James Watt
Improved Newcomens Steam Engine by adding and External Condenser to make it faster and more efficient.
Worked with Boulton and Wilkinson
Puddling
melt down oar to pull purest part out of middle
Steam powered bellows
Used by Britain because they didnt have charcoal; bellows raised temp of coal to produce steel.
Rolling Mills
Hammered Mechanically to make steel.
What two things made Britain the richest nation of the world?
Steel and Cotton Imports.
Fulton
Steamship
Stephenson
Railroads
Cockerill
In Belgium; largest textile mill in world. Used steam power. A big push towards Industrial Revolution.
Rothschilds and Credit Mobilier
Offered money for co.'s to use steam power.
*Created Entreprenural Middle Class
Entrepreneural Middle Class consisted of:
Investors
Owners
Managers
Other Middle classes: doctors, nurses, workers
The 2nd revolution Sparked the growth of whom?
The Middle Class
Combustion Engine and Electricity were itroduced during what revolution?
The 2nd Revolution
BEGINNING OF THE LIBERAL REVOLUTIONS
BEGINNING OF THE LIBERAL REVOLUTIONS
Theories of the Enlightenment Background are:
1. Liberty and Equality(liberty from monarchs, equal by nature)
2. Economic Liberty
3. Freedom of Religion
4. Natural Law
5. Natural Rights
*Thought that human life could be improved through improvement of Gov't.
Philosophers of Enlightenment Period
1. John Locke
2. Montesquieu
3. Rousseau
John Locke
Believed in Equality of Human beings and Legitimacy of Government.
"All humans are born TABULA RASA" -a blank slate
-nurture and education are needed
Montesquieu
Believed in Seperation of Powers:
1. Legislative
2. excecutive
3. judiciary
Rousseau
Believed in ABSOLUTE DEMOCRACY.
People rule themselves and have equal right to vote.
BEGINNING OF FRENCH REVOLUTION I
BEGINNING OF FRENCH REVOLUTION I
Louis XVI 1744
Ruled France with Queen Marie.
Wars, State Finances, and Nobles King Louis Had to call on the Estates General for the 1st time since 1614. Didnt help him.
Estates General
Nation's Midieval representative Assembly:
1st Estate: Clergy
2nd Estate: Nobles
3rd Estate: Commoners
Tennis Court Oath
On June 17 The Estates General (National Assembly) met at Versailes. When the Third Estate (national legislature; commoners)arrived to the convention and found the door locked they marched to the tennis courts and swore not to move until France had a Constitution.
*National Constituent Assembly of France
Storming of the Bastille
July 14 1789
Parisian Middle Class demolished the bastille (a prison) in Paris, not to take the nobles as prisoners, but to destroy the symbol of the Old Regime, and its fall demonstrated the growing defiance.
Declaration of the Rights of Man
August 26, It Proclaimed human "inalienable rights" to liberty, property, security, and resistance to oppression.
-all male citizens egual before the law.
-taxes were to be levied only by common consent.
Constitutional Monarchy
Made France a limited monarchy
-lawmaking rights given to legislative Assembly.
-limited voting and free economy
-Church and Noble property confiscated and sold to middle class.
Who were the Jacobins?
Group of extreme Radicals of the National Assembly, Led By Robespierre (leader of French government) and Danton.
National Convention
(universal male sufferage)
September Massacre
Led by Danton, prosecuter for the Paris Commune and leader of Jacobins, a mob of parisians broke into the royal palace, massacred the swiss guards, and looted the premisis.
-Paris Commune seized power from the Legislative Assembly, deposed the king, and executed some 2000 suspected royalists and priests whi didnt support the Revolution.
New National Convention declares France a Republic
Becuase of the take over by the Paris Commune.
THE FRENCH REVOLUTION II: THE TERROR
THE FRENCH REVOLUTION II: THE TERROR
Victory of new France
Revitalized army defeated Prussians at Valmy.
Austrian Netherlands, Rhineland, and Savoy.
-Fused radicalism with nationalism
-led by Danton, Marat, and Robespierre.
Defeated in spring 1793
Execution of the Louis XVI spurred internal Civil War.
peasant armies, supplied by by British ships, fought the republic; worsening hunger and poor seperated Jacobins and Girondins; mobs uprose;
With one vote, Jacobins triumphed at what issue.
Guillotine of Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette.
Committee of Public Safety
(12 members) Headed by Danton then Robespierre. Decided security policies. Caused false accusations of traitors who were then Guillotined (40,000 victims).
*REIGN OF TERROR*
Reign of Terror
Caused by the Comittee of public safety, 40,000 victims were accused of treason and guillotined. Caused the end of Girondists, Dantonists, and Robespierre himself.
Reaction to the Reign of Terror:
-Elimination of the C.P.S.
-New political system established: Directory to govern France.
Directory
Governed France, consisted of an excecutive counsel of 5 members. Conservative and antidemocratic, and anitroyalist.
encouraged military expansion.(Napoleon worked his way up to General in the French Army)
THE FRENCH REVOLUTION III
THE FRENCH REVOLUTION III
Napoleon
overthrew Directory and proclaimed himself FIRST CONSUL, with the help of his army. 1799