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31 Cards in this Set

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Tsar Nicholas Romanov II
Became Tsar in 1884
Believed he had a link to God
Answered to no one but himself
Was the only Autocracy left in Europe
Introduced the Duma in 1906
Duma
First Legislative Assembly in Russia
Introduced in 1906
Used to appease protesters
Rasputin
Russian Monk
Believed to have healing powers
Supposedly had affair with Tsar Nicholas' wife
Assisted in 'healing' Tsar's son Alexandra
Bloody Sunday
Slaughter of 100 out of 100,000 workers
Led by Father Gapon
Started Revolution in 1905
January 22, 1905 in St. Petersburg
Happened outside “Winter Palace”
Lenin
Born April 22, 1870
Marxist
Inspired by Karl Marx
Wanted Communism worldwide
Led the Bolshevik party
Led October Revolution of 1917
Treaty of Brest Litovsk
Peace treaty between Russia and Germany
Signed on March 1918
Marked the resignation of Russia from WWI
Russia lost a lot of Territory and morale
Lost ¼ of Russian Population
Trotsky
Was a Marxist
Was a supporter of Menshevik party
Became leader within Bolshevik party
Born November 7, 1879
Founder/Leader of the Red Army
Kerensky
Key Member of the Duma
Prominent leader in February Revolution of 1917
Key member of Provisional Government
Distributed weapons to workers in order to “defend” Petrograd
Released Bolsheviks from prison and armed them
Provisional Government
Was formed in response to the fear that old government would put down rebellion
Took over once Tsar Nicholas II abdicated
Instead of pulling out of war, arranged an offensive (Named Kerensky Offensive)
Main enemy of Provisional Government were the Soviets
March Revolution
Workers went on strike
Began with lack of bread and fuel
Soldiers turned on government
Military Officials lost control
Outcome: Tsar abdicated
April Thesis
Laws or regulations released by Lenin
Targeted the Kulaks
Denounced liberals/bourgeoisie
Called for new Communist policies
Introduction of Lenin's policy: “Peace, Bread and Land”
General Kornilov
Military officer
Given command of military after overthrow of Tsar Nicholas II
Headed strike against the Russian Provisional Government
Red Terror
Brutal tactics used by Communists
End Russia's involvement in WWI
Communists killed thousands of their opponents
CHEKA
Created by the Bolsheviks
Soviets secret police
Used Red Terror tactics to ensure communism
October Revolution
Overthrew provisional government
Gave power to soviets controlled by Bolsheviks
Capture of the Winter Palace
Bolshevik
Small group of revolutionary leaders
Wanted Revolution without the masses
Believed they were the Majority
Proletariat
Opposite of Bourgeoisie
Working class/peasants
Made up much of the Revolutions throughout Russia
Bourgeoisie
Business class of people
Owned businesses, land, factories
Exploited working class Russians
Made up much of the government
War Communism
System that existed in Soviet Russia during reign of Bolsheviks
Meant to keep Red Army armed
Rioters could be shot
Private ownership became illegal
New Economic Policy
Brought up by Lenin
Was meant to allow small shop ownership (private ownership)
Was Not Communistic.
Russian Civil War 1918-1921/Reds vs Whites
Began with the collapse of Provisional Government
Soviets reigned (powered by the Bolsheviks)
Petrograd/St. Petersburg was the first city to fall
Karl Marx
Grandfather of Communism
German Revolutionary
Believed that communism would only happen within a well industrialized country (Germany, Britain, France)
Believed that the working class in well developed countries would revolt
Kulaks
People whom were slightly higher then the peasants
Were considered the Peasants 'class enemies'
Wanted their crops to themselves, did not want to give them up
Stalin's Purges
Period of two years (1936 – 1938)
Mass execution and imprisonment
Purge of nearly everything
Repression of peasants
Gulags
Established April 25, 1930
Soviet forced labor camps
Large instrument to repression of the Soviet
Used to increase industrialization through manual labor
Five Years Plan
Administered by Stalin
Introduced in 1928
Concentrated on Industrialization and Collectivization
Was introduced to increase production, as Russia's industrial process had been slow
Command Economy
Economy was controlled through only the Government
Government passed out instructions and orders to factories and farms
Had a series of plans which Stalin named the Five Year Plans
Collectivization
Implemented by Stalin
Was a policy to gather plots of land into larger collective farms
Was used in order to drastically increase the food supply in Russia
Was used in order to drastically increase the amount of raw materials
Treaty of Rapallo
A treaty signed between Germany and Soviet Russia on April 16, 1922
Terms were that both sides were to renounce territorial and financial claims
Agreed to co-operate in meeting the economic needs of both countries
Comintern
International communist organization made in Moscow, March 1919
Intended to overthrow the international Bourgeoisie
Wanted to encourage communist parties in other countries to overthrow their governments
Nazi-Soviet Pact
A pact made between Hitler and Stalin during 1939
Stalin was afraid that Germany would soon invade Soviet Russia
The treaty involved the promise that neither Germany or Russia would attack one another for 10 years
There was an economic policy that Germany would exhange manufactured goods for Russia's raw materials
Germany ended up invading Russia, breaking the pact within 2 years