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102 Cards in this Set

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Samuel Adams
A member of the Sons of Liberty. A Member of the Continental Congress under Massachusetts
Albany Plan of Union
Some of the colonies got together and formed a union. This was the first attempt at an organized movement against Britain.
Boston Massacre
The colonists protested the taxes made upon them and the British soldiers fought back. Sixteen thousand people were killed.
Boston Tea Party
The Sons of Liberty organized this Attack on three ships in the Boston Harbor carrying tea. Colonists snuck onto the ships at night dressed as Indians and dumped the Tea into the Harbor.
Coercive Acts
The British placed these upon the colonists. The Acts reminded the colonists that the Parliament still had control over them and that the colonies were represented in congress
Committees of Correspondence
Patrick Henry organized these. The Committees sent letters to foreign countries telling them of the goings on in the colonies. Some times the letters requested help and other times they demanded other things. Letters were sent to Parliament of England and to France.
Declaratory Act
The British imposed this Act on the Colonists in an attempt to gain control over the colonies. It said that the Colonies could not create their own taxes and their own laws.
French and Indian War
The French and Indian War lasted many years. It began in the early 1730s but went on until the official end in 1763. There are many wars wrapped up in the French and Indian War including the King Phillips War and the Seven Years War.
Lord North
The Prime Minister of England during the Revolutionary war. He took the separating of the colonies from Britain as an attack and was determined to get them back under control.
Thomas Paine
A Member of the Continental Congress. He wrote a book called Common Sense that sold over 100,000 copies in the colonies. That was about ¼ of the Male population in the colonies.
Pontiac’s Rebellion
Pontiac was Pocahontas’ father. The colonies fought with him until the end of the 1730’s at which point they beat down the rest of his rebellion.
Proclamation of 1763
the Proclamation of 1763 was an attempt by the British government to regain control of the colonies. It organized them and allowed certain areas, such as Canada and Mississippi, to be Catholic.
Salutary Neglect
After the French and Indian War, Britain didn’t tax the Colonies for a time. Their goal was to gain the colonies trust and to make ties with them. Eventually this backfired when the British began to tax the colonies for the strains the French and Indian War put on the Bank of England.
Sons of Liberty
The Sons of Liberty were a group of revolutionaries, many of which were part of the continental congress. They organized protests and other events in opposition to the Crown. They organized the Boston Tea Party.
Sugar Act
The sugar act placed a Tax on the Molasses and sugar that came into the colonies. This Act put a lot of stress on the Rum trade that came in and out of the colonies.
Stamp Act
the Stamp Act imposed a Tax on many paper goods that came in and out of the colonies. It was a way for Britain to Tax the Colonies for the French and Indian War. Any item that had a certain Stamp on it, had to pay a tax.
Tea Act of 1773
the Tea Act of 1773 gave exclusive rights to the East India Trading Company to Import tea into the colonies. It stopped the colonies from exporting or importing Tea and eventually resulted in the Boston Tea Party.
Townshend Duties
The Townshend duties were placed on the colonies by the British. They put a tax on all goods coming in and out of the colonies. This was an attempt to keep the colonies from trading with the French West Indies
Treaty of Paris of 1763
the Treaty of Paris of 1763 was the Official end to the French and Indian War. It took place in Paris where all of the King and Monarchs were represented and it divided the rights of land among them. For the most Part Britain retained a large portion of the Land but things like the fishing rights and Louisiana were given to the French. Havana was given to the Spanish.
Declaration of Independence
The Declaration of Independence was signed on July 4th, 1776. It was the most influential document to the official starting of the War. After it was composed and sent to King George the British officially began their assault on the colonies.
First and Second Continental Congresses
The First continental Congress featured representatives from all of the colonies except for Georgia. The second continental congress saw the drafting of the Articles of Confederation, the formation of the Continental Army, the appointing of George Washington as General of that Army, and the unity of the colonies.
Iroquois Confederacy
The Confederacy was a combination of five different tribes. It began in the Pre-French and Indian War era and continued to exist throughout the revolutionary War. The Confederacy fought on the side of the British during the War and decimated French forces
Saratoga
The Battle of Saratoga was a turning point in the Revolutionary War for the Colonists. It signaled the end of the British domination of the colonies.
George Washington
Was the General of the Continental Army. He was a Virginian Farmer who had become a soldier during the French and Indian War.
Yorktown
The Battle of Yorktown was the last battle of the Revolutionary War. It culminated with the surrender of General Cornwallis and opened the British up to negotiations.
Ethan Allen
The Leader of the Green Mountain Men. A Guerilla fighting force that fought the British on their way about the colonies.
General Gage
The first British Brigadier General during the Revolutionary War.
The Battle of Bunker Hill
The Battle of Bunker Hill is probably one of the most famous battles in the Revolutionary War. It is well known for the mantra of the colonists “Don’t shoot until you see the whites of their eyes!”
General Howe
The Second British Brigadier General during the Revolutionary War.
Ben Franklin
A member of the Sons of Liberty. A Member of the Continental Congress. He was many things to the colonies; An Ambassador to French, a Scientist, a Politician, a Printer, and a Founding Father.
John Adams
A member of the Sons of Liberty. A Member of the Continental Congress
Nathan Hale
Was a Colonial Spy in the British Forces. He gained a high rank in their army and then reported news back to the colonies.
John Hancock
A member of the Sons of Liberty. A Member of the Continental Congress. He was the First to sign the Declaration of Independence. He was a smuggler until one of his ships was confiscated and then he was elected to congress and eventually became a governor of Massachusetts.
Patrick Henry
A member of the Sons of Liberty. A Member of the Continental Congress. He is famous for the quote “Give me Liberty, or Give me Death!”
Nathaniel Greene
A Member of the Continental Congress. He was a General in the Colonial Army.
Marquis de Lafayette
a French Volunteer. The French forces had not yet been committed to the War. And so while the colonists awaited the French forces he joined the Army.
Comte de Rochambeau
The Leader of the French Forces. At the Battle of Yorktown they came and saved the colonists and helped them defeat General Cornwallis.
Deborah Sampson
Deborah Sampson was first woman to impersonate a man to get into the Colonial Army.
The Articles of Confederation
The Articles of Confederation was drafted during the Second Continental Congress. They detailed a system where the colonies were independent of Congress and did not have to pay taxes to it, except for a gift of money when they wanted to. It was sent to the colonies to be ratified and by the time it was it would only be in affect for two more years before the constitution replaced it.
Constitutional Convention
May 25, 1787 Philadelphia, 4 months to create constitution, Rhode Island didn’t show, George Washington Lead.55 delegates in Independence Hall. September 27, 1787 the constitution was finished.
Federalist
statesmen that were pro-constitution
Anti-Federalist
Statesmen that were anti-constitution
Three-fifths compromise
Slaves would be counted as 3/5 of a human. This was with regards to representation in the congress.
Articles of Confederation
November 15, 1777 drafted and ratified, first constitution.
Shays Rebellion
Shay rebelled against the Colonial Government because of the seizing of farms in his area. Many other farmers rebelled as well. He died in 1788.
Checks and Balances
Different parts of government kept the other in check and made sure they didn’t get to powerful.
XYZ affair
Led to the quasi-war of 1798-1800, although it started in 1797
Whiskey Rebellion
1791-1794, Appalachian workers resisted the tax on whiskey and other distilled drinks. The tax was proposed by Alexander Hamilton.
Treaty of Greenville
august 3, 1795, Indians and Colonists. The Indians turned over the future site of Chicago, Ohio, and Fort Detroit.
Washington’s Farewell Address
September 9, 1796. At the end of his second term. It was more of a letter than a speech. He also refused a third term. Themes: Political factionalism, Foreign Alliances, Political Prosperity.
e Pluribus Unum
One From Many
Federalist papers
85 articles that argued for the Ratification of the U.S. Constitution.
George Washington as President
organized the cabinet, helped ratify the Bill of rights, Established the Federal Judiciary.
10 Bill of Rights
I. Freedom of Speech and petition.
II. Right to bear Arms.
III. NO Soldiers shall be quartered without consent of owner.
IV. Illegal Search and Seizure.
V. Fair trial/can’t testify against himself.
VI. Speedy and Public Trial/to confront the witnesses against him.
VII. In money matters that exceed 20 dollars the right of trial by Jury is still in play.
VIII. No excessive bail or Cruel and Unusual Punishments.
IX. The Constitution should not be made to hurt anyone.
X. Any of the rights not listed in the Constitution are up to the States or the individual to decide.
Census of 1790
First Census after the Inauguration of Washington
Jefferson and Hamilton Relationship
Hamilton wanted a president that was more like a King. He also wanted there to be a looser interpretation of the Constitution. Jefferson had exactly the opposite goals in Mind
Revolution of 1800
Thomas Jefferson beat out the Current President John Adams for Presidency.
Marbury vs. Madison
1803 – The issue was whether or not the power of the Supreme Court could be expanded by congress
Louisiana Purchase
April 30, 1803 the Louisiana Purchase took place. The colonies bought out the French’s claim to America for over 23 Million Dollars.
Lewis and Clark
Left from the Ohio River to find a way west. They were trying to beat the French at going, which they did. See Sacajawea.
Aaron Burr and Hamilton
Aaron Burr and Alexander Hamilton had a duel. July 11, 1804, Burr was indicted for killing Hamilton after wounding him and leaving him to die the next day.
Impressments
Conscripting people to serve in an army or Navy. In 1795 the Jay Treaty went into effect and helped solve the problems between England and America.
Tecumseh and the prophet
Tecumseh and the Prophet were two Indians that along with their tribe fought to take back their land from the colonists
Chesapeake Affair
June 22 1807, the British ship called the leopard attacked the American Frigate.
Era of Good Feeling
1815 – 1824, Bitterness against England dissipated.
Battle of New Orleans
January 8, 1815. Andrew Jackson defeated British Forces from taking New Orleans. Lyrics at the end.
Treaty of Ghent
December 24, 1814 in Belgium ended the war of 1812.
Sacajawea
Lewis and Clark. Indian helped them find their way across America and to the ocean and then eventually onto a coin.
The War of 1812
The British started to harass the Colonists again with such things as impressments and other things and so they fought back.
Monroe Doctrine
December 12, 1823 proclaimed that Europeans should not attempt to colonize the Americas anymore.
Missouri Compromise
1820 The Southern states wanted to have another slave state and so finally it was let in under a slave state.
The Union of 1821
Missouri let into Union
Corrupt Bargain
Some Believe that because the Speaker of the House told the House how to vote, and then when Adams got the presidency he got a good job too, that he was corrupt
The Jacksonian System
Anti – Whig Party
Trail of Tears
1838 the Indians were relocated to western United States. They cried as they went, hence the name of the event.
Alexis de Tocqueville
French Lawyer and diplomat. Known for his book Democracy in America – 1835-1840
Nat Turner
started a slave rebellion in the south. He died November 11, 1831.
Whigs
Opposed the Democratic Party and Jacksonian Ideals
Alamo
February and March of 1836. The 13 day siege of the Alamo. Famous Battle in history. Davy Crocket was in this Battle.
Manifest Destiny
The Theory that the west was to be settled by the Americans.
War with Mexico
1846 -1848, Mexico didn’t want Texas to secede and Join the U.S. and made it clear that they were unhappy with its occurrence. The U.S. wanted to keep as much land as it could since Mexico regained parts of California and New Mexico.
Mexican War
April 25, 1846 Mexican Troops attack American Forces. Gen. William Scott ended the War with his occupation in Mexico on September 14, 1847 and the official peace treaty was signed in Feb of the following year.
Gain from Mexican War
Mexico gave up about half of its territory in the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. In return Mexico received Money for the Land it’s gave to the United States.
Frederick Douglas
American Abolitionist, an author as well as a speaker, believed in the equality of people no matter color or place of origin. He was a slave in Talbot, Maryland. He escaped pretending to be a free black sailor on a train. He later came to write for various papers and his own stories. He was a banker at one time as well as an ambassador. His house was also burnt down.
Underground Railroad
a route of safe houses that held African slaves as they made their way north to Canada to ultimate freedom. Harriet Tubman was a “conductor” along the route for many years after she, herself escaped from slavery. Other routes did lead to Mexico or Overseas. It wasn’t actually underground but it was in the sense that it wasn’t talked about. Normally people traveled by foot and sometimes wagon. You wouldn’t know what kind of conditions were ahead either.
Compromise of 1850
All of the territories that had been acquired from Mexico is the Treaty of Guadalupe would be organized without mention of slavery….don’t ask don’t tell.
Uncle Tom’s Cabin
The novel that follows Uncle Tom and how he can be saved by Christianity. Harriet Beacher Stowe, the author, wrote it in response to the compromise of 1850.
Republicans new Party
former Whigs and northern democrats, and free soilers formed the new Republican Party. They opposed Slavery.
Bloody Kansas
The expansion into Kansas. The term refers to the fighting that was waged over Kansas being a free state or not. Many southerners took their slaves to Kansas to set up there. The Kansas-Nebraska Act.
Dred Scott
A slave that sued for his freedom and lost. They had lived in parts of the country where slavery was illegal. He first tried to buy his freedom from his owners and then when that didn’t work he sued them
Lincoln/Douglas Debate
A series of seven debates held all over Illinois. Lincoln lost the election but he still was launched into national prominence The Manuscripts are still available to be read.
John Brown
First White American to practice insurrection as an Abolitionist. He attempted to start liberating slaves in Virginia. He was ultimately hanged for treason in Virginia.
Southern States Secede
seven states declared the secession form the US before Lincoln was in Office. The states seceded because they could see that slavery would soon become illegal and they believed it necessary for their survival.
The Census of 1860
31,183,582 people
476, 274 free colored people.
27, 233,198 free people in total.
3,950,528 slaves.
%13 of US were slaves.
5,155,608 families
398,975 slaveholders
%8 of families owned slaves.
Confederate and the U.S.
The US and Confederate had separate constitutions. US refused to have any diplomatic relations with the south. The British recognized the Confederacy. The confederacy did structure itself the same way that the US did….three branches of Government.
Milestones of the Civil War
the south secedes in January of 1861
March of 1861 Lincoln in Office.
April 1861 four more states join confederacy.
July 1861 first battle of Bull Run.
January 1862 Lincoln Takes Action
April 1862 Battle of Shiloh December 1862 battle of Fredericksburg.
January of 1863 Emancipation Proclamation.
June and July of 1863 the Gettysburg Campaign. November of 1864 Lincoln Re-elected.
January of 1865 confederacy falls.
April of 1865 Lincoln assassinated.
April to May of 1865 Formal surrender of Confederate Troops.
Cost of the Civil War
Over one million casualties in the war. An estimate in 1879 said that more than 6 billion was spent. The South was also in shambles and it would take time to rebuild especially because there were no slaves to do it.
The Union of the Civil War
23 States did not secede. The Union did not recognize the Confederacy as a separate entity and refused them a diplomatic ambassador.
Who Killed Lincoln
John Wilkes Booth, Booth was part of a plan to capture the president and trade him for confederate prisoners. After the Confederacy surrendered Booth decided to assassinate the president instead.
What was the Reconstruction
Reconstruction of the south began after the civil war. Many men were killed and there weren’t any more slaves so the south grew back slowly. Civil Rights became an Issue in the south and although slavery was over segregation went on for a long time.
The Carpet Baggers
They moved from the north to the south with cheap carpet bags to live there. Money would be worth more because of the lack of it in the South.
The Impeachment of Johnson
Political Quarrels led to the impeachment. He fought with too many republicans, over the policy regarding the reconstruction of the south. The people wanted to retain slavery in the south under a new guise. That didn’t sit well with Johnson.