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35 Cards in this Set

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school of psychology, associated with Titchener, that focused on identifying the structural elements of human conscious experience, primarily through basic laboratory and introspective methods
school of psychology, favored by most early American psychologists; focused on the study of human conscious experience from an evolutionary perspective, concerned with studying
drill courses
instructional courses in basic laboratory techniques, predominant in American universities in late nineteenth Century
name used for someone participating in a psychological experiment in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, so-called because the primary activity was observing one's mental activities through introspection
systematic experimental introspection
form of introspection associated with Kulpe and Titchener, in which the experience of complex mental events was followed by detailed introspective descriptions; a more elaborate form of introspection than Wundt's
introspective habit
the result of extensive practice with introspection, this was a dissociative ability to make mental notes about an experience while the experience was occurring
stimulus error
to be avoided for proper introspection, according to Titchener, this was a tendency to report the products of conscious experience instead of the conscious experience itself
In Titchener's system, these were the ways of classifying the various elements of conscious experience; for example, the element of sensation had the attributes of quality, intensity, duration, and clarity
social Darwinism
the belief that evolutionary forces were natural and inevitable and that any attempt to disrupt them (e.g.. By creating programs for the poor) was misguided and doomed to failure; associated with Spencer
reflex arc
basic unit of behavior, reduced by physiologists into the stimulus producing sensation, the central processing producing and idea, and the motor response; analysis rejected by Dewey, who argued that the arc should be seen instead as a coordinated unit that adapted the individual to the environment
progressive education
associated with Dewey, an approach to education that emphasized making the student an active learner (learning by doing)
trial-and-error learning
Thorndike's explanation for the behavior of his cats in puzzle boxes - they escaped by trying various behaviors until hitting on one that worked; also used by Morgan to provide a parsimonious explanation for the behavior of dogs escaping from yards
Thorndike's model of learning, emphasizing the development and strengthening of connections between stimulus situations and responses that became stronger with trial and error learning
law of effect
Thorndike's principle that behaviors that were effective in problem solving would be strengthened (stamped in), while behaviors that were not effective would be weakened (stamped out)
law of exercise
Thorndike's principle that learned connections between stimuli and responses were strengthened with additional practice
the study of animal behavior in its natural surroundings; associated with Lorenz, but with roots in Spalding's work
the effect of learning in one situation on learning in a second situation; could be positive or negative; pioneer studies by Woodworth and Thorndike
S-O-R model
proposed by Woodworth to recognize the importance of the organism intervening between stimulus and response
term referring to the motivational processes (e.g., the hunger drive), introduced to psychology by Woodworth as an example of a factor that intervenes between stimulus and response; important intervening variable for Hull
independent variable
any variable in research that can be directly manipulated by an experimenter; this usage introduced by Woodworth
dependent variable
any variable in research that is measured as an outcome of an experimental study; this usage introduced by Woodworth
mental test
any test designed to measure mental activity or ability; term introduced in 1890 by Cattell
completion test
mental test designed by Ebbinghaus to measure mental fatigue in school children; because it focused on higher mental activity, it anticipated the approach later taken by Binet
individual psychology
label used by both Binet and Adler; for Binet, psychology should focus on ways of identifying and measuring individual differences (e.g., mental testing) rather than on general laws
mental level
term used by Binet to indicate a child's level of mental functioning; those in need of remediation scored two levels below the norm for their chronological age
mental age
mistranslation of Binet's mental level; indicated a child's level of mental ability, reported in terms of years
term invented by Goddard as a label for adolescents or adults scoring at a mental age of 8 through 12
intelligence quotient
term invented by Stern and used by Terman in the Stanford-Binet tests; "IQ" equaled mental age divided by chronological age, the result multiplied by 100
a model of society based on the idea that the most mentally competent should be the leaders; championed by most American mental testers, especially Terman
methodological problem in longitudinal research, when participants drop out of the study; notably low in Terman's longitudinal study of giftedness
army alpha
group intelligence test developed by Yerkes for testing the abilities of literate soldiers in World War I
army beta
group intelligence test developed by Yerkes for testing the abilities of illiterate soldiers in World War I
an extreme nationalist tendency, in which outsiders are considered inferior and dangerous; characterized by the United States in 1920's, contributing to restrictions placed on immigration
forensic psychology
the application of psychology to the law, pioneered by Munsterberg
study of how systems and equipment can be best designed to avoid human error; pioneered by Gilbreth