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77 Cards in this Set

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King John VI
Portugese king; forced out by Napolean in 1807 (or 1808?), returns in 1821 and leaves son behind in Brazil
Rosseau
Romantic philosopher; believed that behaving badly does not matter b/c society does it to man. Choose rejection and failure to be true to your nature
Romanticism
Man is naturally good, but society corrupts him. 19th century. Romanticize revolution;
kingship = evil
Pedro I
Son of King John VI; declares Brazilian indep. in 1822 and establishes a constitutional monarchy. Military losses in Uruguay cause growing unrest, and he abdicates for Pedro II in 1831
Jose de San Martin
1778-1850 Argentinian; wins in Chile, stopped and pases command to Bolivar around 1825
Junta / Junta Central
Local governments. 1808 = junta central created in Spain; 1808-1810 = created in LA but brutally oppressed
Regionalism
Regions have different interests than whole nation (Ex. US Civil War)
Roots of Revolution In LA (3)
(1) Enlightenment
(2) French and American Revolutions
(3) Napolean's invasion of Spain
Simon Bolivar
Venezuelan Personalist leader in 1st half of 19th century; spreads revolt to Colombia, Equador, Peru, Bolivia
Pedro II
Takes Brazilian throne from Pedro I in 1831; rules until 1889
Caudillos / Personalist Leaders
LA politicians that get power from military / charisma and large following; use it to challenge const. power limits
Gran Colombia
Bolivar unifies Peru/Bolivia/Colombia into Gran Colombia (1814), but it does not last
Colnel Agustin de Iturbide
1821 allies w/ remaining insurgents and declares Mexican independence
Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla
Mexican priest that rallies Urban poor in 1810; executed in 1811
Jose Maria Morelos
Student of Hidalgo; much better leader; executed in 1815 when tide turns again
Paez
1790-1873; Bolivian personalist leader and declares Venezuelan indep. in 1829 when his authority is challenged
Andrew Jackson
early-mid 19th century US president; challenged limits on power
Juan Manuel de las Rosas
mid-19th century; dominated Argentina (dictator) for 2 decades until 1852
War of 1812
US vs. Britan; white house burns down. US at this time is weak; by 1900 is a force to be reckoned w/
Benito Juarez
Mexican president forced to flee in 1862; he regains power in 1867
Maximilian
Hapsburg emperor installed in Mexico 1862-67 (executed in 1867)
Shaka
Creates Zulu kingdom in 1818; Zulus are a strict military state
Usuman de Fodio
Muslim cleric in west Africa (early 19th cent); charges that rules are not muslim and calls for revolution
Sokoto Caliphate
Takes over in 1809 and new states become centers of Islamic learning
Muhammad Ali
Succeeds Napolean (1805-1848) in Egypt. Modernizes / Westernizes
Ismail
Grandson of Muhammad Ali; westernizes even more. Takes a risk on cotton and ends up heavily indebted to Europe when its value plummets
Tewodros II
Ethiopian emperor that westernizes and return Ethiopia to its ancient borders. He holds British captives; commits suicide when British invade
Abd Al-Qadir
Algerian cleric in early-mid 19th century that they rally behind while fighting off the French for 18 years
David Livingstone
Scottish missionary that names Victoria falls; remarkable = how little resistance he meets
Legitimate Trade
Trade in non-human goods (gold, salt, oils, ivory); this grows after the British abolish slavery in the mid-19th century
Jaja
starts as a slave and rises up to found Opobo port; example of how African slaves had a chance
Tippu Tip
creates personal empire along Upper Congo
Secondary Empires
Puppet regimes for Europe (in Africa) where they could make a fortune trading
Cecil Rhodes
British entrepreneus who monopolizes diamonds (19th century); treats his workers terribly (ex. of bourgeois supremacy)
Lesotho Tribe
Tribe that forms to protect refugees from Zulus
Maratha Confederation
Growing independent states in Mid-18th century; based in Central India; begin to control more land than Mughals
Nawabs
muslim princes (mid-18th century) that gain more power
Company Men
Trading companies employ these for "hard bargaining" in mid-late 18th century
Sepoys
Indian troops hired to protect companies
Robert Clive
After the powerful Nawab of Bengal attacks the British EIC, Robert Clive leads a force to overthrow him. This is the start of Britan's excuse for colonialism in India
Seven Years War
1756-65 BIC gains South India and forms Bombay Presidency
Bombay Presidency
Formed in 1818 when the B. EIC annexes large territories
British Raj
Want to (1) westernize; (2) leave traditions in place to bolster their power
Sepoy Rebellion
May 1857; discontent grows and the trigger is the cartridge fat; rebels are nationalist. Only Hindus at start but Muslims join in.
Durbars
elaborate pageants (British style) to show off
Rammohun Ruy
1772-1833 = Prominent Indian nationalist who founds the Divine Society and seeks reform
Indian Civil Service
Government of India; set up to exclude Indians from meaningful jobs
Indian National Congress
1885 - want larger role for Indians and other reforms, but for now only represents interests of Indian elites
Concert of Europe
Group of victors in Napoleonic wars; agree to consult each other before going to war and keep peace from 1812-1852
Nationalism
loyalty to people / land rather than the person of the monarch
Louis Napolean / Napolean III
grandson of Napolean I; comes to power --> plebiscite and uses nationalism (the people want me) to stay in power. He provokes the Crimean War.
Plebiscite
Referendum
Federalism
State governments along with national government. Louis Napolean uses this to govern many different cultures
Causes of Crimean War
The church of the holy sepulcher in Jerusalem is becoming far too Eastern Orthodox. Louis steps in to ‘resolve’ this, and the Russians become involved both because they do not want the French to control the Dardanelle’s and because they have traditionally been the protectors of the Eastern Orthodox.
Treaty of Paris
1856 - reaffirm Concert of Europe, but this is bs b/c every knows it's in shreds
Black Sea Clause
Russia can't use Dardanelles (part of Treaty of Paris)
Besarabia
Important strip of land along the Black Sea. Austrians would very much like to control it. Prussians and Austrians pick up and leave after they take it.
Alexander I
1801-25; reformist Tsar that wants to westernize
Nicholas I
Iron discipline and suspicion of modern ideas are predominant. Very influenced by the Decembrist revolt, and very picky about discipline and order, as well as doing things his way. Sells over 1,000 works from the hermitage. Press censorship, tsar’s police, and the detention of political opponents in insane asylums are common features of his rule.
Slavophiles
oppose westernization; believe Russian Orthodox faith, feudalism, and czar's abolute rule are the bases of Russian civiliation
Pan-Slavism
After Crimean war (mid-late 19th century) = militant group advocating Slavic unity
Decembrist Revolt
1825 after death of Alexander I = revolt b/c they know that reactionary Nicholas I is coming
Alexander II
Almost the polar opposite of his father, a liberal-minded reformer, he frees the serfs in 1861. Most serfs still remain in a virtual slave-like state for lack of money. Alexander is assassinated in 1881 by a group called people’s will while returning from a meeting to draft a constitution. A church, the church of the spilled blood, is built on the site of his assassination.
Alexander Haeen
mid-19th century; believes traditional peasant families are the heart of Russia, and encourages socialism
Narodniki
Political movement in mid-late 19th century to make Russia a land of communes
Russification
41% of people are non-Russians, and Alexander III (late 19th-century) persecutes them, especially Jews. Police power and jails grow
Alexander III
see Russification
White Lotus Rebellion
1794-1804; ignited by social instability and messainic idealogy
Opium Wars
Mid-19th century. The Chinese ban opium imports, which sparks a war. Soldiers of the Qing Empire, the bannermen, were hopelessly obsolete, and the British excelled at naval combat. The British eventually move through the Yangzi River and enter Nanking, where they sign the Treaty of Nanking. This treaty dismantles the Canton system, increases the number of treaty ports from one to five, eventually expanding to more than ninety, and seeds Hong Kong to the British. In addition, the tariffs on British imports are lowered to 5 percent, and the Chinese pay 21 million ounces of silver as reparations. They also grant the British most-favored-nation status.
Treaty of Nanking
1842 = end of Opium wars; dismantles Canton system; British get most-favored-nation status; foreigners get more power
Taiping Rebellion
The Hakkas, a minority group, rebel near the eastern coast. Hong Xiuquan, a Hakka who had several times failed the government examinations for civil service jobs, sees himself as the younger brother of Jesus, commissioned by God to drive out the Qing and found a new kingdom. He calls his new religion the “Heavenly Kingdom of Great Peace”, and founds a capital with the same name in Nanjing in 1853. By 1856, Britan and France join in and launch the Arrow War (also 2nd opium war) which lasts until 1860, culminating in the sacking of the Summer Palace in Bejing in 1860. They then turn their attentions to the Taiping rebels, and help w/money and military supplies. The rebellion is put down soon thereafter, but the end cost is 20-30 million dead, primarily from starvation and disease. Provincial governors such as Zeng Guofan gain enormous amounts of power, which is not entirely regained. The british form a new Maritime Customs Service to help the Chinese pay back their debts, and the Qing are left extremely weakened.
Arrow War
Britan / France attack China again (1856-60) and capture Bejjing; new treaties punish Qing for not having enacted all of Treaty of Nanking
Robert Hart
British amassador who insures Qing pay their debt (for a large cut of the profits)
Zeng Guofan
Example of a powerful provincial governor in mid-late 18th century; looks westward for aid
Cixi / Empress Dowager
Another powerful provincial during the mid-late 19th century, initially known as a reformer but later corrupt and arrogant. Becomes so powerful that she meddles in Qing foreign policy as well as domestic affairs. Later known as the “Empress Dowager”
Zeng Guofan
Example of a powerful provincial governor in mid-late 18th century; looks westward for aid
Cixi / Empress Dowager
Another powerful provincial during the mid-late 19th century, initially known as a reformer but later corrupt and arrogant. Becomes so powerful that she meddles in Qing foreign policy as well as domestic affairs. Later known as the “Empress Dowager”