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80 Cards in this Set

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4 Million - 1 Million Years Ago
Era of Australopithecus
3.5 Million Years Ago
Era of Lucy
2.5 Million - 200,000 Years Ago
Era of Homo Erectus
200,000 BCE
Early evolution of Homo Sapiens
200,000 - 35,000 BCE
Era of Neandertal Peoples
13,500 - 10,500 BCE
Natufian society
10,000 - 8,000 BCE
Early experimentation with agriculture
10,000 - 300 BCE
Jomon society
8,000 BCE
Appearance of agricultural villages
4,000 - 3,500 BCE
Appearance of cities
3,000 BCE - 1,850 CE
Chinook Society
Evolution of Homo Sapiens
hom•i•nid: noun Zoology a primate of a family ( Hominidae) that includes humans and their fossil ancestors. ORIGIN late 19th cent.: from modern Latin Hominidae (plural), from Latin homo, homin- ‘man.’
The Hominid -- “Lucy”
Australopithecus
Australopithecus
Appeared in east Africa about four million to one million years ago
Australopithecus
Walked upright on two legs; well-developed hands
Australopithecus
Stone tools; fire later
Homo Erectus
It is widely accepted that population similar to Homo erectus was directly ancestral to the earliest members of living species Homo sapiens. The exact timing and mode of transformation are still controversial.
Homo Erectus
Homo erectus appears to have evolved in Africa about 1.8 million years ago. Migrations first to Asia and then to Europe. The species became extinct sometimes less than .5 million years ago. This timing places Homo erectus between homo habilis and the earliest appearance of Homo sapiens. The time of migration out of Africa is unknown. Most scholars agreed migration occured about 1 million years ago but there is continue debate over how much earlier than this had begun.
Homo Erectus
Recently a Homo erectus lower jaw has been found in Georgia and said to be 1.6 million years ago. A number of important firsts were recorded during the Homo erectus’ existence.
Homo Erectus
*the first appearance of hominids outside of Africa
Homo Erectus
*the first appearance of systematic hunting.
Homo Erectus
*tool making and use of fire* tool making and use of fire
Homo Erectus
*first indication of extended childhood.
Homo Erectus
*homo erectus was capable of a more complex life.
Homo Erectus
*Body size also increased. Reaching close to 1.8 meters in male and 1.55 meters in females.
Homo Erectus
*the cranium is long and low and somewhat flattened at the front and back
Homo Erectus
*the cranial bone being thicker than in earlier hominids
Homo Erectus
*the face is short but wide and the nasal aperture projected forward, suggesting the first appearance of the typical human external nose with the nostril facing downward.
Homo Erectus
*pronounced brow ridges are present above the orbits.
Homo Erectus
*the postcranial skeleton is similar to that of modern man but its robust and was clearly heavily muscled.
Homo Erectus
*Homo erectus evidently routinely experienced heavy physical exertion.
Homo sapiens
Origin Latin, literally “wise man”
Homo sapiens
Evolved as early as two hundred thousand years ago
Homo sapiens
brain with large frontal regions for conscious and reflective thought
Homo sapiens
spread throughout Eurasia
Homo sapiens
Ice Age enabled travel to other regions otherwise unreachable.
Paleolithic Society
Pa•le•o•lith•ic | adjective Archaeology of, relating to, or denoting the early phase of the Stone Age, lasting about 2.5 million years, when primitive stone implements were used. • [as n. ] ( the Paleolithic) the Paleolithic period. Also called OLD STONE AGE . The Paleolithic period extends from the first appearance of artifacts to the end of the last ice age (about 8,500 years ago). The period has been divided into the Lower Paleolithic, with the earliest forms of humankind and the emergence of hand-ax industries (ending about 120,000 years ago), the Middle Paleolithic, the era of Neanderthal humans (ending about 35,000 years ago), and the Upper Paleolithic, during which only modern Homo sapiens is known to have existed. ORIGIN mid 19th cent.: from PALEO- [of prehistoric times] + Greek lithos ‘stone’ + -IC.
Paleolithic Society
Economic and society of hunting and gathering peoples
Paleolithic Society: Economic life
prevented individuals from accumulating private property
Paleolithic Society: Economic life
lived in an egalitarian existence
Paleolithic Society: Economic life
lived in small bands, about thirty to fifty members in each group
Paleolithic Society: Economic life
Big game hunting with special tools and tactics
Paleolithic Society: Economic life
Some permanent Paleolithic settlements, if area rich in resources
Natufians in eastern Mediterranean
Paleolithic Society: Economic life
Some permanent Paleolithic settlements, if area rich in resources
Jomon in central Japan
Paleolithic Society: Economic life
Some permanent Paleolithic settlements, if area rich in resources
Chinook in Pacific northwest area of North America
Paleolithic Society: Economic life
Natufians in eastern Mediterranean
Collected wild wheat and took animals from abundant antelope herds.
Paleolithic Society: Economic life
Natufians in eastern Mediterranean
Natufians burials, often place in close proximity to the homes of the living, contain elaborate jewelry made of bone, shell, and shone. These materials, readily available in the Mediterranean landscape, were fashioned by skilled artists and marked the social standing of the Natufians’ buried ancestors. At Eynan/Ain Mallaha, for example, an exquisite headdress made from hundreds of delicate, tusk-skaped dentalium shells was found in a woman’s burial.
Paleolithic Society: Economic life
Jomon in central Japan (Hunter Gathers of Japan)
Harvested wild buckwheat and developed a productive fishing economy.
Paleolithic Society: Economic life
Chinook in Pacific northwest of North America
Chinook society emerged after 3000 B.C.E. until mid-nineteenth century C.E.
Paleolithic Society: Economic life
Chinook in Pacific northwest of North America
Subsisted on wild berries, acorns, and massive salmon runs in local rivers.
Paleolithic Society
Chinook in Pacific northwest of North America
These settlements had permanent dwellings, sometimes in the form of longhouses that accommodated several hundred people, but often in the form of smaller structures for individual families.
Paleolithic Society
Neanderthal peoples
Europe and southwest Asia between one hundred thousand and thirty-five thousand years ago
Paleolithic Society
The creativity of homo sapiens
Constructed powerful and flexible languages
Paleolithic Society
The creativity of homo sapiens
Accumulate and transmit knowledge to new generations
Paleolithic Society
The creativity of homo sapiens
New tools, weapons, and trade networks
Paleolithic Society
Cromagnon
The first human beings of fully modern type; appeared forty thousand years ago
Paleolithic Society
Cromagnon
Venus figurines--fertility
Paleolithic Society
Cromagnon
Cave paintings of animals--sympathetic magic
Paleolithic Society
Cromagnon
The first human beings of fully modern type; appeared forty thousand years ago
Paleolithic Society
Cro-magnon peoples (Homo sapiens sapiens)
Paleolithic Society
Ho•mo sa•pi•ens | the primate species to which modern humans belong; humans regarded as a species. See also HOMO. • a member of this species. ORIGIN Latin, literally ‘wise man.’
The neolithic era and the transition to agriculture
The origins of agriculture
The neolithic era and the transition to agriculture
ORIGIN late Middle English : from Latin agricultura, from ager, agr- ‘field’ + cultura ‘growing, cultivation.’
The neolithic era and the transition to agriculture
The origins of agriculture:
Neolithic era; new stone age; refined tools and agriculture
From about twelve thousand to six thousand years ago
The neolithic era and the transition to agriculture
The origins of agriculture:
Neolithic era; new stone age; refined tools and agriculture
Neolithic women began systematic cultivation of plants
The neolithic era and the transition to agriculture
The origins of agriculture:
Neolithic era; new stone age; refined tools and agriculture
Neolithic men began to domesticate animals
The neolithic era and the transition to agriculture
The origins of agriculture:
Neolithic era; new stone age; refined tools and agriculture
These activities gradually led to the formation of agricultural economies.
The neolithic era and the transition to agriculture
Early agriculture around 9000 B.C.E.
Agriculture emerged independently in several parts of the world
The neolithic era and the transition to agriculture
Early agriculture around 9000 B.C.E.
Merchants, migrants, and travelers spread food knowledge
The neolithic era and the transition to agriculture
Early agriculture around 9000 B.C.E.
Slash-and-burn cultivation involved frequent movement of farmers
The neolithic era and the transition to agriculture
Early agriculture around 9000 B.C.E.
Agriculture more work than hunting/gathering but steady, large supply of food.
The neolithic era and the transition to agriculture
Early agricultural society; population explosion caused by surplus
Emergence of villages and towns
The neolithic era and the transition to agriculture
Early agricultural society; population explosion caused by surplus: Emergence of villages and towns
Jericho, earliest known neolithic village
The neolithic era and the transition to agriculture
Early agricultural society; population explosion caused by surplus: Emergence of villages and towns
Mud huts and defensive walls
The neolithic era and the transition to agriculture
Specialization of labor
Neolithic site of çatal Hüyük, eight thousand people
The neolithic era and the transition to agriculture
Specialization of labor
Prehistoric craft industries: pottery, metallurgy, and textile production
The neolithic era and the transition to agriculture
Social distinctions, due to private land ownership
The more land one held in their possession, yielded more food crops.
The neolithic era and the transition to agriculture
Neolithic culture; calendars and life cycle deities
Example of calendar system
The neolithic era and the transition to agriculture
The origins of urban life
Emergence of cities, larger and more complex than villages
The neolithic era and the transition to agriculture
The origins of urban life
Earliest cities in the valley of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers, 4000 to 3500 B.C.E.