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71 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Early Cultures
Amorites, Babylonians, Cainites/phoencians, Aramaeans, Ugarit, Hebrews, Nabataeans, Palmyrans
Armaic language.. common dominate language
Culture center... first alphabet.. 30 letters
End of the 13th century bc
dominated the land trade routes
Arab-Islamic phase
predate islam.. by the founding and spread of arab power.
Internatal struggle between followers of muhammad for power and leadership of islam.
used conquest to divert internal stugges..ll north africa
Fatamid Caliphate
azahar university
Ottoman empire
conquoered most of the arab land
did not conquor morroc.. scared of other empires
yemen free from ottoman control
mertantive economic system.. want to export as much as possible.. little to no import.. get as much gold
Euopeans countires didnt like this.
Napoleon invades egypt which is the beginning of the end for them
Ottomans position on religion
wlecomed arab conquors to save them from byzantine persecution from turkey
joint contributions to arabic culture
no forceful conversation to islam under early arab/muslim rule.. had to pay army tax
Umyyad Caliphs
leader.. dynastic rulers.. founded in damascus.. invaded spain.. isabella pushed arabs out of spain
Abbasid caliphs
three factions
1. baghdad, fatamid caliphate, and caliphate in spain
caliphite in spain
helped by differened centers of rule
flurishing of arabic culture.. cross cultural exchange
Urban people
-within city walls
-lived in different religious communities
-few suburban neighborhoods
rural people
peasants lived in villages with village head called a shykh
nomads (bedouin)... cattle and camel herding.. if urban rulers were weak they could control the trade and pilgramge routes..
social elite
urban nobles.. religous scholars.. alim/ulama... intermediary btw ppl and rulers
military cheifs
follow quran
traditions and sayings of muhammad.. called the hadiths
supported the abbasid claims to the caliphats
believed tha ali was the true air to muhammad.. believe ali and his decendants had the right to rule... follow the quran and the sunna arrpoved by the imam
people ruled by divied right.. they had the power to interpet the quaran
he was a caliph.. ali was the cousin and son in law of muhammad... married fatima, muhammads daughter
actions of the profit
one who leads in praryer
(oritenal) nestorian.. syrian.. gregorian armeians.. maranites.. coptic
division between the easter byzintine and weathern church
Eastern church
patriaracan.. head.. spit again.. greek orthadox church and russian orthoox church
pope.. head... spit again.. reformatiion..
roman chruch.. misionary movment to middle east. by jesuits as a part of canter-reformations
protestants.. missionary movment it middle east
orrental-middle east
saferdiz.. spainish drivento N africa and trikey..
ashkhenanzi.. german
Fatimid dynasty
strong navi
caliph moved to cairo (enter of empire
control all of weathern muslim world ecept spain
end of their rule allowed crusader to come in and invade
Turkish rule
-not muslim
-patoral people from asia, monolia and western china
-needed land to graze flocks
Ghznavids and seljuks
able to control dif factions
...after divion of empire
people from eurpoe
only controlled around the coast
created kindoms
introduced european goods/colonization by europeans
effect future trade/expansion/colonization by europeans
created a negative immage of euro[pean as people who invade and destroy
controled egypt
not invaded by mongals
slave generals.. slaves who were trained to fight.. convert freed and bought their own slaves
rulers by mumluk sultain.. named by previous sultan.. not inherited
monoglian turk who invaded and controled contral asia and expanded east and west... after his death everything divided in 3 sections... iran.. ottoman state and Egypt
center of roman empire until 1453.. 1204.. falls to crusaders.. nominal power after that.. Orthodox church center
law coods.. bais of laws throughout sociiety
hagia sophia.. influentical buildings.. influence mosque building
Muhmud II
continued military reforms of Selim III
Janissares rose up in revolt which led to civil war
while mumud was still leader.. the janisaies were inctonrol and military reforms were ended
through a number of treaties the ottoman empire lost control of land and power in its provinces
gave up land to ottomans
economic conditions got worse
defeated ottoman army.. got supplies..
began to build a navy
tried to reconcile shii and sunnies.. this didnt work
by the time of his murder he had become a tyrant man trial leaders fought for the thrown
Qajar dynasty
aga muhammad beat out all other triabal leaders.. Tehran became the capital because that was where he lived
expelled the russians from the north
Aga muhammad
four passions.. power, averice, reveng and hunting
able to establish justice throughout the country side
murdered by his servants
fath ali
had to fight for the thrown his oncles left for him
created a gov where the shah's (leader)s word was the law
sppeased the religious leaders
irans was never truely unified
Fath ali and Europe
russia began to conquor land in the caucasus.. iran saw that land as theirs
iran became allied w/ france
france did not support irans claims and caucasus
so iran sided with british
british came and trained irainan army.. Russo-pursian war.. iran lost a lot of lant to russia
Fath ali and reforms in iran
army.. traied like europans army
used modern weapsons
improved-tax system and justice system
Ottomans power
-destroyed the byzantine empire
-lasted 600 yrs
-ruled over three continents
Events which led to ottoman power
battle of mansikert.. seljuk beet the byzantine army.. opened anatolia to turkish settlement
two great trade rotes met here.. now controled trade.. beak bysantine empire
anatolia became a turkish muslim area
ottoman army
basic unitis.. 10, 100, 1000
bagan as captured slaves who were converted, educated in the palace school and trained to fight
-well trained and feared soldiers
-became the term for the infantry men
regular cavalry
Mehmed II
reorganized the goverment, tax system and economy.. captured constantinople.. had to repopulated the city.. chritians and jews were allowed to created their own enclaves
-after the fall of constantinople.. the size of the empire doubled
ruled for 46 years.. "the law giver"
-taught to rule the empire
-ibahim.. suleimans childhood friend, became great vizierate, got to power hungry and was killed
=expanded in balkands, hungary,rhodes, attached vienna but withdrew before winter
french saw him as an ally against HRE
-north africa except morroco
-invade iraq, iran and arbian penisula
Selim II
inherited a huge empire.. copmplex gov.. kept law/tax system of conquored land
-empire undergoing changes
-sultain still in power but not asstrong
-woman in the royal family exters more influence
-princes not sent by local rulers and gain eperience
-less expansion meant less money
-pop growth about 40% in villages and 80% in towns
-influx of gold and silver from american colonies led to price inflation
-new taxes
-decentrailized gov
-local leaders did not try to rebel against Ottoman rule they just hadmore power and sent on less money to istanbul
few revolts.. Syria, Egypt.. war was also changing .. moremoney and more sophiticated weapons
Mehmed Korprulu
grand vizir to mehmen IV
-put in place reforms, centrilized gov, miltary expansion (europe)
-his work was carried on by his son ahmen
-almost captured vienna
-in 17th century the venetians began to gain land in greece
treaty of Karlowitz
-venice got to keep southern Greece but gave up athens
-sultans give speical treatment to christians
-power of russians recognized
-beginning of european expansion toward istanbul
-ottomans still had power
weak ottoman leaders.. challenged by russia and ustria.. 5 sultans who lacked education.. 1711-1739.. lots of fighting and little lost of terrritory
war with iran
ottomans not willing to use modern weapsons..
increase in trade
1740 treaty with france which gave france trading and diplimatic rights in istanbul
treaty of kuchuck kainarji- russia gets the crimea ottomans get moldavia, wallachis, and aegean islands
greek or hellenized christian in ottoman service
-they no longer had to convert to get gov jobs
-increased there power in gov
Twlevers shiism
believe that 12th imam muhammad al-mauntazer disappeared in a cave and will return as a savior of humanity
-chalenged the caliph (suni)
-attracted many groups who disapreed with the caliph or wanted there own power
-usually a minority in a sunni state
Safavid Iran
sufi ordered in arabil calle dsavis.. became shii
began to control iran defeated/conquored
-turkish tribes
-chritian geogians
-other sufi(warrior) groups
Ismail I
created a shii state based on twlever shiism
-bealieved that he was divine reincarnation
-worshiped as a saint during his life time
-forced conversion shii
-friends and family ran all aspects of gov
-much of iran was temporarity conquored by selim I. this decrease dismails power.. people less believing his supernatural powers
Abbas the great of isfahan
bought empire back together
direct rule over the provinces
happy peacyful time
gov got money from taxes on land
very committed twelver shiism-gave a lot of money
new system of roads
beautiful buildings
becane to manufacture.. persian carpets, textiles, leather work, etc
created a large trade network
after abbas leaders began to focus more on internal issues
eaily influenced (which is why he was put in power)
no drinking
no fun, coffee, dancing, chess
persecuted religious minorities
spent a l;ot on religious pilgramages
started drinking
Selim III
Ottoman emperor
wanted to restore power of the sultanate and regain control over the provinces
decreased the power of the grand vizirs
semim III and the army
begain by training and outfitting 600 men like europan limitary
changed the way the army was pain (wages- wanted to go to war less)
changed the reponsilities fo the offices
Nazam I-jadid (army of the new order)
janisarries refused to fight with new army
without the new army they were very unsucessul against the serbs and prussians
selim III and education
new schools.. engineerin
imperial naval enginerering school.. 40,000 sailors
shows they too can be modern
Semim and foreign policy
created embasies in land on paris, vienna dn berlin
Selim III and bureaucracy
decreased it.. got rid of man of the jobs
Selim III and economy
increased taxes
siezed gold and silver to make new coins stole them to make 100% gold and silver.. not mised with other meltel
melted it down to make the new coins.. inflation occured
Ottomans and European methods
book ilistraions, landscaping painting and architecture influenced europeans but not influenceed by music and litterture
mumluks gain power again.. napolean invaded on behalf of selim III to destroy the mumluks.. his real reason was prob to attach the british-india trade route.. also he may have had plans to capture istanbul
Invaded july 2
battle of the pyramids defeats mumluks
while napolon was in cairo the british fleet destroyed his feet in alexandria dn he was cut off from supplies .. put down the rebeleion in cairo
ottoman see the invasion as an act of war and raiseed an army and join with the russian and british to fight him
napoleon invades syria and captures gaza and jaffa
murdered 3000 ottomans prisoners
napolen retreats to egypt.. abadnoned his troops.. went to paris.. became leader of france in a coup d'etat
france stayed in egypt uned 1801
1802 peace between napoelon and selim III