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33 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
used by Cuvier to describe limits of variation. too much would variation would disrupt the correlation of parts.
heat, for joule
heat is motion, derived from joule's experiment in which he stirred water and noted a raise in temperature.
correlation of parts, for cuvier
logical way body parts connected. from one part, the rest of the anatomy can be deduced.
uniformitarianism, for lyell
slow accumulation of changes over time. cannot be observed in a lifetime.
conservation of force
in 19th century, force meant energy. explained in the first law of thermodynamics.
lamarckian wants
change in environment leads to organism to have new needs and internal desire. leads to variation.
sexual selection
individuals seek best of opposite sex in order to have superior procreation. men ruin species by marrying stupid women.
encke's comet
ruined notion of stability, 1832. reinforced notion of temporality.
mechanical money
metaphor for energy. coined by poncellier. connection between world of physics and world of industry.
natural price of a commodity, for adam smith
what it really costs a person who brings it to market. equilibrium towards which market price always tends.
division of mental labor, for babbage
hierarchical division of mental labor. machines replace lower levels, people have increased knowledge. broke society out of malthusian dilemma.
lamarckian evolution
organisms evolve through lamarckian wants. changes inherited.
indicator diagram
helmholtz, way to measure work by mouscle of frog.
joule's experiment on the mechanical equivalent of heat
demonstration of conservation of energy. developed standard unit of heat.
"mean man", for quetelet
averaged means of crime rates, suicide, etc... developed idea of ideal type, the average man, through use of bell curve. showed application of darwin to society.
ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny
fetus goes through stages of evolution. writes of prevailing belief, recapitulates whole chain of being before man.
cause of variation, darwin
plentitude of food, domestication...
what is lost when heat is conducted from hot to cold?
usable work. irrecoverable losses of available work.
trying to breed towards highest level of bell curve. galton and darwin try to promote selection of partners.
concept of change over time. came about after encke's comet.
nebular hypothesis
18th century, formed by collapse of nebular mass. demonstration of progressing state of the world, by nichols.
bridgewater treatises
treatises for proof of existence of God found in nature. first, by whewell introduces encke's comet and states the world has end and beginning.
the 9th bridgewater treatise
babbage, attacking concept of treatise. attributing to God powers you can attribute to a machine.
lamarck's acquired characteristics
same... needed acquired characteristics passed on.
volta's battery
uses chemical energy as source to release electrical energy. demonstrates conversion of force.
malthusian stationary state
geometrically increasing population and arithmetically increasion food supply.
principle of divergence
darwin's principle. over time, given enough, greater divergence of species.
tried to integrate everything together. german, every phenomenon can be explained by forces.
second law of thermodynamics
world dissipates if not directed. from higher state of order to lower. loss of work.
subordination of parts
whole=sum of parts. indicative of other parts of animal.
vis viva
moving work. how work moves within a system (pendulum.) mvsquared.
discover of encke, same year of whewell's bridgewater treatise.
productive, unproductive labor
productive labor adds to value of product in market. unproductive is more intellectual (teacher).