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64 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Merging rhythm and blues and Gospel music
made legal segregation unconstitutional and jumpstarted civil rights movement (1954)
Brown vs Board of Education of topeka kansas
Blacks demand social changes and racial equality
Martin Luther king
Blacks become optimistic hopes of freedom
ascent of soul music
King assasinated, blacks become pessimistic
descent of soul music
Ascent and decline of soul music mirrored that of the civil rights movement
normally did not address directly in music, used?
as rallying cries
Soul is sense of pride in being black, cultural solidarity, aligning oneself with black consciousness and culture
Hairstyles of blacks
"soul food"
ribs, chitins, collard greens
Raw, gritty, powerful sound
Rural SOuth
smoother, pop-oriented sound
Northern cities
Pride, struggle, love, hope, ecstacy, pain, sorrow
Emotional expression of black experience in 1960s
First fusion of R&B and gospel in landmark record " i got a women" became blueprint for soul music. Formula transformed tradition hym "i got a savior, way over jordan" into "i got a women" and adding r&b beat
Ray Charles
"SOul Brother #1" "the godfather of soul", "the hardest working man in show business"
James Brown
Incorporated backup band, Emcee, Choreography, Exciting live performances, Atleast 10 costume changes, Cast of 2 dozen
Characteristics of a Stage Show
At Apollo theatre in front of tough Harlem audience, Tour de force of grit, sweat, power, and raw energy, heroin black community, new crossover appeal to whites
Live at the Apollo
 Stripped of all unnecessary elements, distilled to essence: rhythm
 Brown shrieked, screamed, grunted, wailed (“Good God!”)
 Melodic and harmonic instruments in band played in short, staccato, nonmelodic ways—turned into rhythm instruments
 Entire band patchwork quilt of polyrhythms
 Minimalist concept: simple one or two-bar repeating phrases to create a trancelike effect
Characteristic of music at Apollo
 Good looks
 Suave and debonair image
 Sophisticated musical settings
 Warm, velvety croon
 Sweet, soulful, restrained delivery
 Appealed to everyone
 Mostly crooning, romantic ballads
Sam Cooke
one of gospel’s most popular groups
Soul Stirrers
Was inspiration when in Highway QC band, Cooke was chosen to replace lead vocalist
Soul Stirrers
Sam Cooke was chosen to replace lead vocalist for
Soul Stirrers
Went under the name Dale Cook (to not upset gospel fans) in his conversion to pop music. fans were shocked and outraged
Sam Cooke
o Untimely Death…
 Picked up young model took to motel and reportedly sexually assaulted her
• Model escaped
• Cooke went looking for her outraged
• Night manager of motel shot him in self defense
Sam Cooke
o Founded by songwriter, producer Barry Gordy for $800 (1959)
o Sign at front door reading “Hitsville, USA”
o Largest black owned business in US in 1960’s
o Tightly controlled business run by Gordy and his family
 Brought young, black talent in off streets of Detroit
 Groomed and cultivated them
 Back up with highly polished production
 Sell to largest possible crossover audience
 Friday meetings to vote on whether to release each of that week’s recordings
• Finishing School (Maxine Powell)
• Dance Lessons with choreographer
• Stage presence
• Music production to fit individual sound of each artist
• Record distribution
• Talent agency: artist contracts, management, touring schedules
Assembly Line
 Thick in horns strings and background vocals backed by rhythm section with hard driving beat (“The Sound of Young America”) based off Wall of Sound
 Overdubbing of strings, horns, percussion on top of rhythm section/vocals
• Multi-track tape recorders that allow recording of additional parts independently of each other while listening to previously recorded tracks with head phones
 Core was in-house rhythm section (Funk Brothers)
o Core of Funk Brothers was James Jamerson on electric bass
 Developed syncopated bass style
 Pop-oriented
 Snakepit- nickname of recording studio
• Tiny room in basement
 Most successful writing team at Motown
 46 Top Forty Hits (12 went to #1) (from 1963-1967)
 Artists angered of Gordy’s stingy contracts
 Overbearing control over artists
 HDH team left
 Gordy finally sold for $61 million
Decline of Motown
• “America’s greatest living poet”
• Primary writer/producer for Miracles
o Wrote love songs about passion, loneliness, forgiveness
 Used clever rhyming schemes and metaphors
• Falsetto singing (sing in high voice above natural range)
Smokey Robinson and the Miracles (Motown)
• Five school girls
• “Mr.Postman” became Motown’s 1st #1 pop hit
The Marvelettes (motown)
• Signed with Motown at age 10
• Played all instruments himself, produced, sung, wrote songs
Stevie Wonder (motown)
• Grew up singing and playing organ at father’s church
• Cocaine abusing lifestyle caused self-inflicted anguish
• Father shot him to death
Marvin Gaye (motown)
• Gritty lead vocal of Levi Stubbs
The Four Tops (motown)
• Most commercially successful male vocal group of 1960s
• Precise choreography—best of any Motown groups
The Temptations (motown)
• Most commercially successful of all Motown groups
• 10/14 releases went to #1
• Diana Ross
The Supremes (motown)
• Worked as secretary at Motown
• Earthiest and most soulful
Martha and the Vandellas (motown)
under fathers management
Jackson 5 (motown)
 In Memphis (same time as Motown)
 Evolved with large doses of luck
 Unique transracial environment—no prejudice against blacks/whites
 Started by Jim Stewart in friend’s garage called Satellite
 Moved to abandoned Capital Theatre—bad conditions
• Had attached record store/concession stand
 Wexler impressed with raw energy
Stax the beginning
 “Soulsville, USA” on theatre marquee
 Variety of in-house songwriters
 Sound
• Raw, gritty, powerful, emotional
• Bare bones instrumentations
• Very tight, yet uncluttered groove
• Horns scored in punchy unison lines and chords
• Generally no vocal harmonies or backup vocals
 Everything done in live and spontaneous environment
 Stax is more punchier, direct, emotional, not as overly produced, and more authentic than Motown
Characteristics of Stax
 “Green Onions”
 Both black and whites in the band
 Memphis version of Funk Brothers
Booker T. and the MG's
 Most important in-house song writers at Stax
Issac Hayes/David Potter
 Atlantic wrote clause in fine print giving them ownership of all master tapes
 Dr. Martin Luther King assassinated just a few blocks away
 Tensions between white and black employees
 Questionable accounting practices involving IRS
Demise of Stax
• Tried to make name for himself, not many hits
• Performed with Bar-Kays “(Sittin’ on) The Dock of the Bay”
• Died in plane crash—only #1 hit after dead
Ortis Redding (stax)
• “In the Midnight Hour”
• “Wicked Pickett” bc roughly hewn aggressive style and husky voice
Wilson Pickett (stax)
• Classic soul anthem “Soul Man”
• Exciting live shows
• Dave shot wife in domestic dispute/drug problems
Sam and Dave (stax)
• Brought many artists to Stax (also screwed them over in Atlantic agreement)
• Brought Aretha Franklin to the Muscle Shoals Rhythm Section
Jenny Wexler (stax)
• Rick Hall opened it started small
• Muscle Shoals Rhythm Section- famous in house band
FAME studios (Florence Alabama Music Enterprises) (stax)
• Columbia Records was first recording contract
o Signed with John Hammond
o Tried making her into jazz/pop singer
o 1 hit in 6 years (10 albums) –not success
• Gospel music influence since father was pastor
Arethra Franklin (stax)
Arethra Franklin Left Columbia and signed with Jerry Wexler at Atlantic
o Went to Muscle Shoals (I Never Loved a Man (the Way I Love You))
o Under Wexler she was allowed to do what did best
o Career sky rocketed
o Took Muscle Shoals with her to New York Studio
o Gave songs definitive soul renditions
o Fine pianist and composer
o Ecstatic, gospel-filled voice
Brill Building Pop
story lines related to teens. not offensive to adults
Aldon Music
preferred writers to work in pairs
Leiber and Stoler
Architects of early pop/rock, formula of telling mini stories with humerous lyrics, paid attention to every detail
Phil Spector
most important pop producer. sensed all girl groups would succeed
The Wall of Sound
combined large instrumental groups with multi tracking. (makes biggest sound possible)
Dick dale
1st important surf band. imitate sound of waves
Instrumental rock
before surf bands. similar to surf music but no reference to surfing
Brian Wilson
Most talented, primary songwriter, responsible for pet sounds
Pet Sounds
Songs about young mans difficult coming to age.
Good Vibrations
"mini symphony"
Bacharach and David
lyrics contained adult storylines that were straight forward and clever
Pomus and Shuman
Wrote for drifters and Elvis
The Monkees
got famous from ad placed in magazine, bubblegum