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46 Cards in this Set

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Darwin
'Origin of the Species'(continuity between human and non-human), 'Descent of Man' (continuity of humans from animals), stimulated interest in study of individual differences
Lamarck
2 principles of evolution - development toward perfection with increasining refinement and mutations reflect environmental adaptation, environmental changes responsible for structural changes in plants and animals, inheritance of acquired characteristics (adaptive abilities developed during life are passed onto offspring)
Spencer
functionalism, proposed evolutionary principles, frequently made associations are passed onto generations, instinct is compound reflex action, Law of evolution = survival of the fittest, social Darwinism
Malthus
population growing geometrically and food growing arithemtically
Lyell
theory of geologic evolution --> Darwin apply to biology
Wallace
theory of evolution similar to Darwin in 1858
Galton
intelligence as genetically determined, individual differences (correlational studies), eugenics and biometrics, correlation and regression and measn with variances and deviations, normal distributions for everything, nativism, use questionnaires
James
linked psychology and philosophy for American psychology, 'Principles of Psychology' - attract many to field, consciousness is like a stream, James-Lange theory of emotion
Pearson
correlational methodology, work with Galton
Cattell
work with Wundt and Hall, Galton, learn stats and questionnaire methodology, importance of independence in research, push for functionalism
Binet
blend nativism and empiricism, interesteed in differnce of people not similarities, Binet-Simon scale of intelligence
Simon
Binet as student, french intelligence testing
Stern
intelligence quotient (IQ=[MA/CA]x100), normal distribution, opposed intelligence as single number
Goddard
translated Binet-Simon into english, strong nativism, IQ tests to immigrants
Terman
standardized Binet-Simon scale to get mean of 100, beleived intelligence inherited
Yerkes
founder of comparative psychology, primate research, Army Alpha and Beta tests; work with Goddard, study animals --> comparative psych
Hall
1st American PhD in psych, work with Wundt, founded APA, 2nd major push toward broad functionalist psych in US, theory not experiment
Sumner
first African-American PhD in psych
Dewey
1st psychology textbook, but eclipsed by James, Arc concept, Can't study S or R without environment and entire system - need O; study behavior with emphasis on purpose and function
Angell
intro to psych book, formal beginnings of functionalism, psych should be study of mental operations not elements, naive subjects have faster reaction time in sensory conditions and trained faster in motor conditions - importance of using naive subjects to apply to real world;
Carr
psych = study of mental activity or adaptive behavior, motivating stimulus provoked response--> response feedback altering motivation; behavior is intrinsically and purposively adaptive,
Munsterberg
will is behavioral, narrow positivistic focus, pioneered field of forensic and industrial psychology, modern cognitive behavior
Calkins
1st women president of APA, functionalism, work on memory - paired assocaites task prompts recall
Woodworth
physiological psychologist and functionalist, link physiology and philosophy, psych must be S-O-R
McDougall
influences by James functionalism, all behavior is purposive and freely emitted, all motives are instinctive and stimulus for purposive beahvior
Romanes
animal intelligence, caused call for Occams razor and simplicity again
Washburn
work with Titchener as 1st PhD student, work with functionalist, study animal consciousness, reconciled behaviorism and introspection
Stern intelligence quotient
normal distribution, MA/CAx100
anthropometry
study of human body measurements
eugenics
founded by Galton, genetic engineering
Social Darwinism
progress (social evolution) can inevitably lead to good and bad ends, balance between culture and man, state works best if don't interfere
Army Alpha & Beta tests
Yerkes, mental testing for officers - less than .5% were rejected --> questioned practicality of testing
word-association test
Galton, list of constant word pairs to study deeper subconscious associations
James-Lange theory of emotion
reverse common sense theory of emotion, fear being the consequnce of behaviors, see bear-run-afraid
stream of consciousness
consciousness is continuous, James, biological purpose to adapte organism to environment
Spencer-Bain principle
voluntary behavior follows the pleasure principle, Spencer
Angel 'The province of functional Psychology'
functional manifesto, define pscyhology to adaptation figure/define functional school
Dewey 'Psychological Review' (reflex arc)
watch stimulus and repsonse, but psych should focus on physiology connection - how link S-R (O...[woodworth])
Galton 'Natural Inheritance'
concept of correlation and regression, mental IQ testing, sets up eugenics
James 'Princples of Psychology'
one of the best intro books, establish psych as natural biological scince, functionalism, attack structuralism, psych subject = scuence of mental life, defines psychology
Titchener 'The postulates of a structural psychology'
defined Titchener version of voluntarism as narrow structuralism (immediate introspection)
James psychology
science of mental life, of phenomena and their physiological conditions
Angell psychology
study of mental operations not elements, study of fundamental utlity of consciousness, study of psychophysical relationships
Carr
study of mental activity or adaptive behavior (motivating stimulus provoke repsonse)
Dewey
psych study total organism functioning in its environment
Galton intelligence measures
Word Assocaiton Lists, Mental Imagery, Sensory Acuity