Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

55 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Opera is a drama told with soliloquy, dialogue, scenery and action and continuous or near continuous music, the whole greater than the parts.
Two halves each roughly 2 centuries divided by the French Revolution.
1600-1791 Birth of Opera through Mozart

1791- 2000 Opera flourishes in more places
Romanticism, Nationalism, Modernism
4 periods and their dates
1600 – 1750

1750 – 1800 CLASSICAL

1800 – 1900 ROMANTIC

1900 – 2000
Florentine Camerata
The inventors of opera, The Florentine Camerate, establish a new style of monody “le stile rappresentativo”, in reaction to polyphony and in favor of the importance of words.
librettist Metastasio
formalizes Opera Seria with a series of reforms to bring order to the chaotic state of Italian Opera.
1762 Gluck’s Orfeo
Gluck succeeds in a major reform of Opera Seria. Returns purity and simplicity to the form.
Richard Wagner
In a series of literary works Wagner lays the foundation of a new kind of opera, Music Drama
He backs up his words with actions writing Tristan and Isolde and completing the Ring cycle
Opera is a drama which combines soliloquy, dialogue, scenery and action and continuous music or near continuous music - the whole greater than the parts.
3 Big things....Why can opera happen?
1. The power of music
2. The complimentary nature of music and words
3. The large role of composer as dramatist
In Opera it is the play that is set to music
style of music which most clearly accomodates the natural flow and rhythm of speech.
Stile Recitativo
The new style invented by the members of the Florentine Camerata
Secco Recitativo
A style of recitative which lasted for most of the 18th century and well into the 19th.
Its simple musical patterns allowed for singing to proceed at the same pace as speaking.
It was usually accompanied by a single continuo instrument.
Most often Harpsichord
Elements of A Play
Plot is the structure of the play.
The nature of the plot is how the play works
How it moves from one moment to the next
How the conflicts are structured
How it ends
All drama is conflict. Throughout the play there are events that occur which disrupt the flow of action.
When we reach a moment in which a decision must be taken, that is the moment of crisis.
There are many crises throughout any good play.
A serious play.
The form of tragedy deals with characters who move from relative happiness through conflict into catastrophe, into resolution.
Comedy is most often characterized as humorous dialogue and action of characters that find themselves in ridiculous situations.
Comedy usually deals with how people deviate from societal norms.
The form of comedy usually moves from happiness into a predicament to the unraveling of the story and a conclusion.
Comedy exaggerates elements of humor, with irony.
Comedy point’s attention to social excesses, deviations and mistakes.
Breakdown of the plot (6 points)
1. Exposition
2. Point of attack
3. Inciting Incident
4. Complication
5. Climax
6. Denouement
Part of the play where you receive necessary background information
Point of Attack
Exposition gives way to the development of the story.
Inciting Incident
Moment in the plot where an action or decision upsets the current state of affairs.
Part of the plot that contains a crisis or series of crises.
End of the Complication section and peak of the play that puts all the disruption at an end.
Final resolution of the plot.
3 audience goals
1. Entertainment
2. Enlightenment
3. Empathy
Stage Director
Directs stage actions
Working on plot structure, character development and conciseness of the action.
Artistic Director
Represents the interests and integrity of the producing company
Opera Conductor
musical leader
Creates the stage play or libretto containing all the action and text for the opera
Sources for opera subjects
Current Events
Original Stories
Wakondas Dream Main Characters
Justin, father
Delores, mother
Jason, son
Laura, girlfriend
Three things about the character
Background – physical condition, sexual orientation, education, nationality, race
Relationships - why are they together
Objective – What does each character want?
Breakdown Wakondas Dream Plot
Exposition-Justin and his coyote
Justin’s World
Point of Attack – Spirits appear before Jason.
Inciting Incident-Real Feathers from Standing Bear connect to Jason’s story
Complication: Jason’s struggles lead to appearance and conversation with Standing Bear
Climax, Jason’s and Justin’s decisions collide. Justin shoots Coyote, Jason dies
denouemount- realization by justin
Susannah Based on?
Based on Apocrypha
Susannah 4 Hinge Scenes
1) Scene at the Creek
2) Church Picnic
3) Revival Meeting
4) Murder of Blitch at the Creek
Susannah Plot Breakdown
Exposition: We Meet the characters
Point of Attack: visiting the creek
Inciting Incident: Finding Susannah naked
Complication: Shunning Susannah
Climax: Sam shoots the preacher
Denouement: Susannah Runs The Towns People Away
A 16th century work in which the role of music was to offer diversion in connection with a regular spoken play.
A style of dramatic poetry that dominated Italian theater in the late 16th and early 17th centuries.
Madrigal Comedy
madrigal which combined farce comedy with music to exploit the popularity of the commedia dell’arte.
Giovanni Bardi
Hosted the Florentine Camerata in his home from 1573 – 1592
3 Corollaries Of The Florentine Camerata
1. The text must be clearly understood.
2. The words must be sung with correct and natural declimation. No dance rhythms used and no repeat of text except for rhetorical emphasis.
3. The melody must interpret the feelings and emotions of the character singing them.
Monody is melody flexible enough to combine dramatic action with musical expression
Claudio Monteverdi
1567-1643 Born in Cremona, Northern Italy
Town known for madrigals and violin making.
Wrote Orfeo in 1607
Master of all musical forms. Polyphonic Choral Music for St. Marks, New Opera Style and Instrumental Music.
Lamento Di Arianna
Only surviving music from Monteverdi’s Arianna written 1608
Most celebrated monodic composition of the early 17th century
Great example of the new Florentine theatre style “stile rappresentativo”
French Opera (1670-1750)
Founded by Robert Cambert and Jean Baptiste Lully
Key Elements of French Opera
Greater importance of drama
Large role for ballet, chorus and spectacle
More instrumental music
Short simple songs with dancelike character
Special type of recitative
The French Overture
Christoph Willibald Gluck (1714 -1787)
Wrote operas that reformed Opera Seria
Orfeo de Euridice
2 Basic Reasons For Reforms mid 18th century
Search for something new
More musical variety
Gluck’s Aria Reforms
1. Reduced the scale of arias
2. Trimming off the greater part of ritornello’s
3. Restraining Coloratura
4. Dispensing with effusive word repetitions
5. Da Capo aria abandoned in all, but a few scenes.
Carlo Goldoni 1707 - 1793
Key reformer of Italian Theatre and
Opera Buffa
Opera Buffa
Less serious and light in plot
Familiar characters
Performing requirements modest
Patter Aria
Lively music and lighter feeling
Commedia character complaining about his situation