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75 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Plan that called for using the country's abundant resources, human as well as material, to transform he US into and industrial giant, while protecting American business from foreign interference.
American System
Who coined the term "muckraking?"
Theodore Roosevelt
Who was known as the first muckraker?
Lincoln Steffens
After leaving the New York Times, where did Steffens go?
"The greatest muckraking journal"
What was the project that made Lincoln Steffens a journalistic icon?
Investigating the state of municipal government in the US
What was Steffens' first article for McClure's?
"Tweed Days in St. Louis"
What was "Tweed Day in St. Louis" about?
It was a wake up call to alert the American public to the immorality driving city officials throughout the country.
What did Steffens find out about the expose of St. Louis politics?
City aldermen had crafted a system of governance based on bribery and corruption.
Steffens' article gave __________ the public support he needed to prosecute dozens of city officials for a wide variety of offenses, from stuffing the ballot box to padding contracts.
St. Louis District Attorney Joseph W. Folk
Folk was so successful from Steffens' article that he...
became governor of Missouri
Steffens' series was one of the most significant examples of the muckraking journalism that some dubbed...
"literature of protest"
Steffens traced how
the quest for individual wealth and power infected governmental institutions, organized business, and the low-life criminal element to create a systemic world of graft much larger than its individual parts
The most tangible legacyof Steffens' journalistic work, published as a book titled "The Shame of the Cities," was that it helped
usher in the city-manager form of government.
Who founded McClure's?
S.S. McClure
What did McClure try to tackle?
The enormous power of corporations by focusing on a single trust, his choice, the Standard Oil Company.
The oldest and largest monopoly that was supplying an astounding 90% of the oil to light American homes and power American factories.
Standard Oil Company
Who did McClure select to cover the Standard Oil Company?
Ida Minerva Tarbell
Which magazine did Tarbell write for?
The Chautauquan
While writing in the Chautauquan, what did Tarbell cover?
Education and public health
Which biographies did Tarbell write?
Napoleon Bonaparte and Abraham Lincoln
What was the first installment of Tarbell's monumental series?
"History of the Standard Oil Company"
Tarbell described how the trust had achieved its position by...
John D. Rockefeller's shrewd and ruthless approach to competition
What did Tarbell reveal about the railroads?
That Rockefeller had secret and illegal contracts with selected railroads to give him preferential rates.
Under the illegal railroad contracts,
Rockefeller transported his oil exclusively via those railroads in exchange for rates equal to half what his competitors paid.
How did Rockefeller create a monopoly?
Used railroad contracts instilled with a shipping cost discount that made it impossible for other companies to compete.
Who was known as the "most courageous woman in American History, "Terror of the Trusts," "a modern day Joan of Arc," & the "Queen of the Muckrakers?"
Ida Tarbell
How did Rockefeller put an East Coast refinery out of business?
He paid the most valued employee at this refinery to move to California, forcing the company out of business.
Tarbell's articles were compared to...
Uncle Tom's Cabin
What was the impact of Tarbell's series on public policy?
It was made into a book
The Hepburn Act was passed
Federal grand juries indicted Standard Oil on fraud charges
Supreme Court ruled Standard Oil violated the Sherman Anti-Trust Act
High court forced the company into 38 smaller companies
Although Rockefeller avoided going to jail, what did he do to improve his tarnished reputation?
He hired the country's first publicity man, Ivy Lee.
What was the most important implication of Tarbell's series?
It fulfilled McClure's goal of showing he public not only that many big businesses were corrupt but also that the Fourt Estate could force them to abide by the law.
2 publications that exposed railroads
McClure's and The Arena
Publication that tackled telephone and telegraph companies
Publication that focused on mining and sugar trusts
Publication that tackled the beef trust
World's greatest reporter
Ray Stannard Baker
Why was Baker seen as the world's greatest reporter?
He totally immersed himself in whatever subject he was studying.
In the early years of the twentieth century, what did Baker focus on?
American labor and labor unions
Why did Baker distrust the unions?
He suspected they had become corrupt as the sprawling corporations they fought against
What was Baker particularly concerned with?
the common worker was no longer allowed to make his or her own decisions regarding whether to join a union
What did Baker build his articles around?
profiles of individual workers
How did Baker differ from Tarbell and Steffens?
He tried to right the wrongs he discovered.
The most tangible of Baker's articles
When Schmitz, mayor of San Francisco, was indicted on five counts of extortion
Another American labor muckraker, who focused on the plight of working women
Rheta Childe Dorr
What was the Dissident Press VI?
What was the first issue of the reason for the American Civil War?
State's rights
How many slave/free states were there?
19 free; 15 slave
Northern view of slaves...
North is racist; slaves really aren't people; Lincoln even resisted Emancipation until galvanizing the war effort.
Technology ahead of combat tactics
Soldiers still march in rows up to the enemy;
New bullets benefit from rifling in rifle barrels.
Characteristics of Northern Press (4)
Telegraph becomes important but unreliable;
Reporting style no longer chronological, moving toward inverted pyramid;
Lincoln was criticized;
Censorship is king-like wartime phenomenon.
Characteristics of Southern Press (5)
Southern papers slower to develop;
can't cope with rising costs;
lack of newsprint because of only 5 percent of paper mills in the South;
No sharing news with the North;
Censorship was under tight control by the confederate government
Characteristics of Northern journalists
Well educated
Characteristics of Southern journalists
They were soldiers who sent letters.
Who invented the process of photography?
Louis Daguerre
What was the problem with photography? (2)
20-30 minutes of shuttertimes to take a photograph made it difficult to take action shots; there is nothing accurate about a photography, it does not reflect the truth.
Who did a pictoral history of the war?
Matthew Brady
What were the implications of Civil War press? (4)
Northern papers thrived
Northern papers expanded technology
Southern papers had limited resources
Southern press nearly extinct after war
At what was Socialism aimed?
What was the prime target of the socialist movement?
Industrial Revolution and the North's expansionism.
Why were socialists concerned with the Industrial Revolution? (3)
Increase in pollution
Dangerous working conditions; no protection laws
Wealthy class is getting much more wealthier
What did the socialists believe the government should do? (2)
Said government should intervene for working class;
said laborers should control means of production
Who was the leader of the Socialist Press?
JA Wayland
What publication did Wayland found and where?
Appeal to Reason in Kansas
Issues for Wayland (5)
Denounced capitalism
Celebrated socialism
Promoted organized labor
Served as socialist newspaper of record
Organized the 'Appeal Army'
Who wrote in Appeal to Reason investigating unsafe working conditions?
Mary Harris Jones 'Mother Jones'
What kind of activities did the Appeal Army engage in? (3)
community-building activities;
Sold subscriptions and distributed the paper;
Supported candidates to defeat harmful legislation
What happened as a result of the Appeal Army supporting candidates to defeat harmful legislation?
US House considered a bill to deny mail permit, which Army defeated on First Amendment grounds
What kind of community building activites did the Appeal Army engage in? (3)
Formed Appeal study groups
Formed Appeal Lecture Bureau
Formed the Appeal Agitation League
What did the Appeal Army do that violated socialist principles? (3)
Army increased profits of paper
Paper carried more advertisements
Gave away premiums for subscribing
What type of journalism did The Jungle fall under?
immersion journalism
Who wrote The Jungle?
Upton Sinclair
Why did Wayland want Sinclair to write The Jungle?
To investigate Chicago meatpacking plants
What was the result of The Jungle? (5)
Took journalism into literary writing
Changed food industry and journalism
Showed how system broke workers' spirits
Found that exhausted workers were falling into huge vats of meat
The immediate impact was Teddy Roosevelt passed the Pure Food & Drug Act of 1907
How did the Appeal lose its cool?
Accused law enforcement of kidnapping 2 union officials;
threatened to meet govt with guns