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51 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
6 Minor Consonant Changes
Assibilation:(sj, zj, tj, dj) become sh, zh, ch, jh)
R: preconsonant /r/ disappears after back vowels--British r
T and D disappear in consonant clusters--nekst became neks
Loss of /l/ after lowe vowel and before labial or velar consonant--talk to tok
Loss of c and x as allophones of /h/ after vowel. bricht to brait
Loss of distinction between hw and w (hwic becomes wic)
Examples of palatalization
fortune, shore
Current noun forms
Single, plural, genitive (possessive), some mutated plurals, common
How did EME form the possessive?
's possessive for both singular and plural nouns universal at beginning. By end, -s was often omitted in expressions where the genitive relationship was no longer clearly perceived (peace sake, mothertongue)
What changes in the relative pronoun occurred between ME and EME?
that: all purpose and most widely used, often for restrictive clauses
which: by itself and in compounds (that which, the which)
who: becomes frequent in EME, but still rare in restrictive clauses, simple who suffices (not he who)
Uses of th-pronouns versus y-pronouns
Thee, thou: speaking to equals, singular
You, ye: speaking up, plural
Prepositions that have changed in meaning
without: outside of
of: on
from: because of
fromward: against
upon: on or about
Most strong verbs have become weak by now.
Dummy Do
they put it all over the place. We have rules--questions, netagtives, and emphatics
ME they say "Sue thou me"
EME, imperative no loner required as subject, but could take one. "Sue me" was okay.
Word order for WH-questions? HOw does it differ from ME
-wh, word in ME (no auxiliary), bye EME, sometimes put in (wh, noun, verb
In negative clauses, auxiliary verbs are used sometimes, sometimes not.
Still multiple negatives.
Printing press
Guternberg, William Caxton brings press to England
rebirth of reading, everything redirected towards Rome and Greece
Protestant reformation
brought bible to masses--most published book
English landowners combine holdings for effecient managing, convert estates into sheep pasttures. Former tenants evicted, move to cities, try to increase standings by correct language, handbooks of correct usage emerge
Industrial revolution
urbanization, technology words
Exploration and colonization
new words, spreading of English, more dialects emerge
American revolution
continued spread of English, new dialect, harder to have an academy fixing language
Effects of Printing
spread of correct spelling, influx of Latin loanwords, authors can make a living
Spellings that dutch printers bring to English
gh (ghost, ghastly), didn't know thorn symbol, turned it to y
Latin scholars affect spelling?
put in silent letters to show they knew how to spell it (debt, doubt, receipt)because they knew the root, borrowed but respelled them
Language of scholars in beginning of Renaissance and at end
English, then Latin
Why Samuel Johnson's dictionary so influential?
wasn't the first, but slowed change, first non-hard word dictionary
Most important model for English grammars during EME
How EME translations from classical languages affect English
middle class is reading, translate into English but using Latin words--there aren't enough English words to translate. Greek also becomes influential because Latin was borrowed from Greece. Words like episcopal and bishop come back again.
The King James Bible had the most affect on what aspect of the Bible?
English stylistics, shall as obligation, will implies prediction, etc.
Industrial Revolution
new technology words, decrease in literacy because of large amounts of children going to work
Dispute over vocab
borrowing of words was consciously and by specific people, so was it arbitrary? they want to go back to Germanic roots and drop Latin stuff (English isn't inflectional, Latin is--do rules work?)
Inkhorn Terms
a borrowing from Latin or Greek to which someone objects: mundane, ingenious, antique
Hard word dictionaries
dictionaries to define words that were new and hard for the people
new food words
Latin loanwords into English different than French loanwords into English
English: people just put in for the heck of it, prestige. French more oral, writing
Some examples of spelling pronunciation
literacy widespread, pronunciation adapst to pronunciation: used th to spell t, adventure, baptism, perfect, adds s and d
Latin scholars change these words to cmake them closer to Latin
debt, doubt, receipt
Latin Inkhorn
ingenious, mundane, antique, extol, education, dedicate, esteem, scholastical, native, confidence
volcano, adagio, ghetto, vermicelli
Spanish and Portugese
albino, molasses, breeze, cockroach, tortilla
deck, sloop, yacht, etch, landscape
quartz, zinc, noodle
shamrock, leprechaun
tomato, potato, tapioca, cannibal, canoe, coyote, cigar, hurricane, papoose, raccoon, skunk
jungle, shampoo, veranda
ketchup, tea, typhoon
sherbet, yogurt
bazaar, shawl
Reborrowings from Latin
OE: bishop, dish
EME: episcopal, dish, discus
Some poets try to revive Chaucer. Spense uses archaic language in Fairy Queen, find elegance in early English, not in Latin and French
Shakespeare's English
i -- ei u--- eu
Has palatalization taken place yet?