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121 Cards in this Set

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Plato's Ethical System
1- Cynics/skeptics
2- Stoics
3- Chirstian
Cynics/skeptics
Doubted everything
rejection of the physical
reason above pleasure
Stoics
"Live simple"
Ultimate truth
Divine will (Logos)
Apathea
Aristotle's Ethical System
1- Peripatetics
2- Epicureans
3- Hedonists/Atheists

Pleasure above reason
Peripatetics
-Knowledge from science
-Ultimate truths
-mover center of science to Alexandria
Epicureans
Looked for ethical right was of living.
No life after death
Pleasure above reason
searching for Golden Mean: Avoidance of all extremes
Hedonists/Atheists
Sexual pleasure
Live on pleasure
short term satisfaction
Diogenes
Leader of the cynics/skeptics
Story: Visited my Alexander who admired him. Alexander asked what he could do for him and Diogenes replied to move out of his sunlight
Zenos
Founded Athens school that began Stoicism
Asceticism
Living simply, shunning luxury and complexity while retaining some value of sensory perceptions.
Apathea
Controlling emotions to accept what fate brings "stoic approach"
Epicurus
Athens, wrote over 300 treaties defining his ethical system
Antiochus IV
Syrian King; wanted to hellenize his people in empire. Only allowed the worship of one Zeus and other gods of greek pantheon. People not following were put to death.
Mattathias
Refused to accept worship rules from Antiochus IV, rebelled and put to death, son carried on
Judas Maccabeus
Son of Mattathias, led rebellion - Maccabean revolt- against Antiochus IV
Sadducees
Ruling priests. Accepted Greek ways. A Jewish faction
Pharisees
Gained power through Maccabean revolt. Resisted all changes to religion
Antipater
Leader of the INDUMAEANS, enemies of the jews, gave son HEROD governorship of Jerusalem
Pontius Pilate
Procurator- crucified Jesus- put in charge of Jerusalem after Herod
Diaspora
Scattering of the Jews, name given to them by the Romans
Torah
Text of faith.
Talmud
Rabbinical commentaries that assist in understanding the Torah
Origins of Rome
Years ofter Trojan war. Story of Aeneas by Virgil.
Virgil
Wrote the Aeneid. Story of Aeneas.
-Georgies
-Perfect Hexameter
-Friend of Horace
Aeneas
Story by virgin, tells the origin of Rome.

Son of Venus, Trojan hero. Famous wandering: encounter with Dido (queen of carthage) who falls in love with him. Duty vs Love, Aeneas chooses devotion to Duty
Romulus and Remus
TWINS of royalty drown so they won't fight over the crown. Washed ashore and build their own city. Romulus kills brother and is named first king. Ruled during the Regal Period. Rome named after Romulus
Regal Period
Rome ruled by 7 kings
Gov't of Rome
2 Parts:
1- Patricians
2-Plebeians
Patricians
Land holders
Plebeians
Common people and merchants etc
Magistrates
operating officials, given specific names depending on duties
Senatus
Patricians, Most important
Control over foreign affairs, Army
Senate appointed consuls- chief executive officers
Concilium Plebs
plebs. Made all laws of Rome.
Laws were called Plebecites.
Elected 10 tribunes(officials who over saw)
Comitia Curiata
Both Plebs and Pat.
Electing Judges
Pontifex Maximus
Chief religious offical of Rome.
Elected by Pats, by Senatus, elected for 1 year doing calendar, calling priests ect
Punic Wars against Carthaginians
First expansion of Rome. Wars Hannibal fought with Rome to stop expansion. Rome eventually Won
Hannibal
General. Attacked Rome by the North. Fought many battles but could never get the Romans to join his army. He went home to defend his own city and lost that final battle to Scipio Africanus
Pro-Consul
A general that could serve longer than a year and worked like a governor.
Horatio
Leader fighting for Rome against the Etruscans. Thought to destroy the bridge leading the enemy to Rome.
Horatti
Romans family with Triplets. Fought against the other triplet tribe of Curiatti.
Centurion
the head of centuries(100 men)
Maniple
3 Centuries (300 Men)
Commander: Military Tribune-
Legion
Groups of maniples....about 6,000 men
King Pyrrhus
Greek monarch. Wanted to expand to Italy and attacked. defeated Roman army, once, then another army, and another army and soon went back to Greece thinking another battle was not worth it.
Tiberius Gracchus
Older Brother of the two.
attempted to overrule the senate for rejecting a treaty. Caused violence in the senate. He was assassinated in the street
Gaius Gracchus
Younger brother. elected tribune and made laws that decreased the power of the senate. killed during a riot
Marius
raised an army for the African campaign.
created a professional army for the first time. was successful in Africa.
Cicero
Powerful leader of the Optimates. Killed Cataline and was criticized by Julius Ceasar
Julius Caesar
Spoke out against Cicero
Advocated moderation
able to win over the hearts of the Roman people.
Wanted to be king and became dictator.
Part of the Triumvirate (Cicero, Pompey, and Caesar)
Patterned his life after Alexander the Great
Governor in Spain
named Pontifex maximus in Rome.
Married Pompey's relatives
Had affair with Cleopatra
killed by 20 senators after wanting a crown, including his son Brutus
Crassus
Organized Rome's only fire Dept. that made people pay to have the help of the fire dept
made alliance with Caesar
Leader that defeated the slave revolt led by Spartacus. Crucified the slaves left.
His companion consul was Pompey.
Optimates
Led by Cicero
Pompey
Part of the Triumvirate
popular general (Asia Minor and Syria
Married Caesars daughter
Triumvirate
Caesar, Pompey, Cicero
Very Powerful, together ruled Rome.
All three wanted more power and got armies.
Rubicon River
Caesar attacking Pompey in Rome=civil war.
Ptolemy VIII
Killed Pompey.
Wife was Cleopatra that had affair with Julius Caesar.
Mark Anthony
Chief assistant to Julius Caesar
Forced to take his own life.
Octavian or Augustus
Caesar's Heir: Humble.
"princeps civitatis"=first citizen
First emperor to retire.
Appointed Pro-consul-new position
Principate
Period of Rule of Augustus
Praetorian Guard
Augustus' personal guard.
Pax Romana
Augustus established period of peace, 400 years
Tiberius
successor of Augustus and adopted nephew
Julio-Claudians
CRAZIES
Augustus
Tiberius
Gaius
Claudius
Nero
Year of 4 Emperors
Seneca
Famous Stoic writer, adviser to Nero
Removed the ART out of plays, made them more sexual, left amusement.
Flavians
Tried to lesson/decrease power in the senate.
Vespasian
Titus
Domitian
Nervan-Antonian
GOLDEN AGE
Gladiators and entertainment
Marcus Aurelius
Tetrarchy
By Diocletian
2 co-emperors called Augustus': Diocletian and Maximian
2 Caesars (secondary leaders)
known as the 4 leaders
Constantine
Fought with competing emperor in the tetrarchy. Saw the Christian symbol(Chi Rho) and fought under it to win. Brought the acceptance of Christianity
Edict of Milan
Constantine declared that all religions, no matter what their nature, would be respected.
This ended the persecutions of the christians.
Imperial Church
church that the emperor is the ultimate authority...set up by Constantine
Emperor would appoint church leader-pope-until 13th century
Julian the Apostate
Only Roman Emperor (post-constantine) that was not a Christian
Byzantine Empire
know
Franks
Group of Germans
Attacked and settled in Gaul
Visigoths
German
Feared the Huns
Won the city of Rome by turning on the Romans that treated them badly
Leader was Alaric
Huns
tribe from central Asia let by Attila
Germans were afraid of them
Attila
Leader of the Huns
Alaric
leader of the Visigoths that took over Rome
vandals
Germans from Africa
2nd to Enter Roman Empire
Ostrogoths
3rd German group to enter Roman Empire.
leader is Odoacer who captured Ravenna where the emperor lived
Odoacer
Leader of the Ostrogoths
Theodoric
know
Pliny the Elder
Roman writer
Wrote the book 'Natural History'- explanation of everything natural. Origins of many legends:elephant afraid of mice
Died while being curious and too close to a volcano
Ptolemy
Greek Scientist in Alexandria:
developed an astronomical system that worked and included Epicycles
Hero
Greek Scientist:
invented steam engine
Galen
Roman physician:
created modern medicine
Worked on the gladiators bodies and learned the body's makeup from this
His information was recorded in 22 volumes that served as modern medical text
Origen
know
Nicene Creed
declared that God the son was the begotten of the Father's substance, god is one object in himself and 3 objects to himself, and the Trinity is the fundamental miracle of the world
St. Augustine
MAybe
End of Roman Dominance
Bad Emperors
Barbaric invaders
Roman Army was not all Roman but of scattered people.
Persians(Parthians) Growing strong and powerful
1 thing that stays in tact is the Catholic church headed by the Pope
Tacitis
Roman Historian,
Two great works: Histories and Annals
books tell a very true history of Rome.
Nicene Council
documented my church father Eusebius, and overseen by Constantine.
Augustine
Bishop in Hippo
Rebel turned Christian
Works: Confessions, City of God
Original Sin
Taught my Augustine: humans enter the world in a sinful state. the reason why ordinances such as baptism are performed
Byzantium
Eastern Empire of Rome: Thought of themselves as Romans but given a new name because they continued after the barbaric fall.
B. Empire really began after Diocletian
Constantine
Laid out by Constantine, completed in 6 yrs.
Built new city, (neo-Rome)New Rome, later named Constantinople
Bosporus
Sea channel that combines: Sea of Marmara and Black sea
Used for trade
Church of Holy Wisdom
Christian church built in Byzantine/Constantinople by Constantine.
largest church in it's time.
Zeno
Eastern emperor in Constantinople.
Theodoric
Gothic King, agreed not to attack the east
Belisarius
Justinian's General
Won so many battles-the most next to Julius Caesar
Justinian
Emperor of Byzantine Empire.
Married Theodora.
Theodora
Married to Justinian
Encouraged Justinian in Nike Revolt
Nike Revolt
Mob in the hippodrome was killed in a bloodbath.
Rival teams for chariot racing broke out in fighting, and crowds burning down buildings.
Justinian Code
compiled by 10 jurists and legal scholars in 2 years.
Said Christian church is official religion.
Muslim
means=one who surrenders or submits his will to Allah
Islam
Means= Submission or peace
Mohammed
Muslim's last Prophet
Arabs are descendants of Abraham through Ishmael.
Mohammed was the first to walk through the door to put stone on proper place. Had all tribes join in placing the rock.
Marries to Khadijah
Wrote "Hadith"-statements
Allah
Means God
Koran
Conveyed through Mohammed.
Only true and correct in Arabic
-exact words in Arabic from God
Ka'ba
1st house of worship of Allah.
Cube shape building that houses a rock that Arabs believe came from God and has special powers.
Higera
period of time between Mohammed's defeat and triumphant return in MECCA
Khadijah
Mohammed's wife
Had her own caravan-trading merchant
Mosque
Place of kneeling and prayer, attended on Fridays
Yathrib
city settled by Mohammed
Later named "Medina" =city of the prophet
Jihad
means suffering or struggle.
4 Good Caliphs
4 leaders elected by the people.
4th caliph was Ali
Sunnis
Larger group: any just man can serve as leader of Islam
Shi'ites
Smaller group: Islamic leader must be chosen by the previous leader.
Believed Mohammed's son-in-law should reign.
Ali
son-in-law of mohammed, one of the 4 caliphs and also who the shi'ites believed should reign
killed during succession war
Umayyad dynasty
Located in Damascus
no support from the Shi'ites
Abbasid Dynasty
Located in Baghdad.
United the Shi'ites and gained support of the Sunnis
Golden age of Islam
Islam Architecture
Dome of the Rock: where Mohammed ascended into heaven. lifted off of rock

Taj Mahal: India