Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

81 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
How do you catch a virgin according to Christian mythology?
1. put virgin in forest
2. hide behind tree w net
3. unicorn comes, rests horn in her lap, falls asleep
4. Jump out and catch unicorn.
Who saw the source for the unicorn (ie. a rhino) and was dissapointed?
Marco Polo
What is Alicorn and what would it do if touched to food?
Alicorn was a medieval unicorn horn. If touched to food the alicorn would reveal poisoin, and shavings were a poison antidote. - Turn colour.
Where did medieval pharmacists likely get this so-called alicorn?
From narwhal (left-handed helix structure tooth) Traded until 1740s.
What was the Upas Tree also known as?
The Javan Tree of Death
Who first mentioned the Upas Tree/Javan Tree of Death?
Friar Oderich of Protenau in 1330 and then John Mandeville (1355) - deadliest poison in the world!
Why did people think there had to be a tree of death?
Opposites Principle - everything must have its opposite. If there was a tree of life, there had to be a tree of death.
Wait a second - John Mandeville. Who was he?
He didn't actually exist. A physician in Belgium, Jean de Bourgogne said he was given a book by a traveler (Mandeville) who then died, but Jean later admitted he made it up and book as just copied from Oderich.
Were European visitors taken to Java ever shown the tree of death?
No they were never taken to it, just told of it. They were told of arrow poison from its sap.
Who wrote Amoenitates exoticae in 1712 RE: JAVAN TREE OF DEATH?
Dr. Englebert Kampfer. Claimed tree grew on island of Celebes. Tree dangerous to approach - let criminals do it.
Rumphius from the Dutch East India Company said what about the Javan Tree of Death (Upas Tree)?
He said it had two sexes and the male sex had a stronger poison. Emenation from tree burned skin, nothing grew under it and there were dead birds beneath it.
What did the 1783 article in London Magazine have to say of the Tree of Death?
- called Bohun-Upas
- couldn't live within 12 miles
- dead bodies beneath tree
- 70/700 criminals came back alive and were freed.
How did the story of the Upas Tree enter literature?
-Erasmus Darwin wrote poem and play "Poison Tree" in 1820.
- Pushkin (Russian Shakespeare) wrote poem "Anchar".
Who was shown the Upas Tree?
Leschenault: 30 m tall, surrounded by vegetation, no poisonous emanations, sap could paralyze animal's heart - ANTIARIN (ANTIARIS TOXICARA).
How does Allelopathy and volcanoes fit into the Upas Tree story?
- Allelopathy: plant supresses competition (black walnut)
- dormant volcanes seep C02 (happened in Lake Nias in Cameroon)
Talk about the Piltdown Man - what was another name, when was he found, and why Britain?
-aka Man of Sussex (1st Britain)
- 1912
- no fossil hominins found in Britain...
Explain Mosaic evolution.
Mosaic Evolution: unequal evolution of different features. Bipedal or brain first? Britain said brain lead to bipedalism.
List the Piltdown Players (6)
1. Charles Dawson
2. Sir Arthur Smith Woolward
3. Pierre Teilhard de Chardin
4. Sir Arthur Keith
5. Martin Hinton
6. Sir Arthur Conan Doyle.
The Piltdown announcement was made in 1912, but when were bones "discovered"?
Bones found in rubble heap in 1908 and taken to Dawson. Found fragments of 2 human like skulls, parts of ape lower jaw, no ascending ramus found.
Who found Piltdown lower jaw?
Dawson did. Not all pieces were found at the same time.
What was important about the Piltdown Discovery?
It supported the brain-lead model of evolution...
Did everyone everywhere believe in Piltdown man?
No - some people thought the brain and jaw were from 2 different creatures - accidental proximity.
What happened in the 1920s-40s with respect to the Piltdown Man?
He was mainly ignored as an anomoly. Not mentioned.
When was the Piltdown fraud exposed as a hoax? How did they tell it was a hoax?
Exposed as a hoax in 1953. Almost no flouride in fossils and chormic acid and iron sulphate used to stain bones. file marks on teeth.
What were the actual dates of the Piltdown man?
Jaw - female orangutan 500 ya.
Skull - human 600 ya.
Suspects in Piltdown Hoax?
1. Dawson- found jaw in situ.
2. Dawson and Woodward- access
3. Martin Hinton - stains found
4. Doyle - grudge w/ science
5. Teihard de Chardin - prank?
What was the meaning of the Piltdown Hoax for science?
- collosal waste of time
- poor initial examination
- results confirmed expectation
- scientific self-correction
- 500 phD diss? Untrue, but still
How do stories arise and spread?
- Observation of real org.
- a priori reasoning
- confounding 2 org or phenom
- secondhand reporting
- mistranslation
- exaggeration
- authorities too much weight
- difficulties in verification
- appearance in literature
- outright fakery
Talk about Sir Arthur Smith Woodward
- Chief of Natural History in British Museum
-Professional (straight arrow)
- Non-anthropologist
- Paleoichthyologist
Talk about Charles Dawson
Amateur collector. Collected for British Museum. Made most of the discoveries or supervised people who did. Friends with Woodward.
Greek and Islamic science had been assimilated by European scholars. What was the problem?
- No investigations were made. They were scholastics, not scientists. Science required literacy. Technology passed from Master to apprentice.
What did medieval technology contribute to later science?
- Use of metals (iron)
- Horses as draft animals
- power generation (wind/water)
- military tech (canon, rifles, trebuchet, gunpowder)
When was the Reformation?
1517 (Martin Luther)
What did geographical discoveries do to stimulate science?
People brought back new plants/animals - ppls' interests turned to nature now more than in medieval period.
Talk about Printing Press
- Gutenberg 1440s-1450s
- Bible 1445
- Made improvement on already existing technology
- Metal type
Talk about Copernicus (1473-1543)
- Took on existing Geocentric Model (not 1st to do this: Pythagoras, Aristarclus). Maintained perfect circles thus observation not complete.
Johannes Kepler (1571-1630)
Showed planetery orbits ellipses not circles.
Galileo Galilei (1564-1642)
- one of 1st to use telescope
- discovered imperfections: sunspots, mtns on moon, Jupiter's moons
Contributions of Galileo?
- emphasized importance of math in science
- "language of God is math"
- respected authority of experimentation
Talk about Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727)
-liked alchemy and was religious
-not general laws
-biology, geography and geology
-his work soo influential that serach for laws became model for science
Leonardo Da Vinci
1. He he organize or publish his scientific work?
2. Where did he learn anatomy?
3. Did he contribute to science?
1. he never published, finished a book.
2. He learned anatomy at art school
3. No contrib. to science but art
Talk about Aristotle and:
- dissection
- vivisection
- fossils
-dissections: horses, fish, insects, frogs, dogs
-vivsections: saw pig beating heart
-fossils remains of ancient animals
Did Galileo Galilei invent the telescope?
No, Galileo didn't invent it, but he was one of the first to use it.
Andreas Vesalius
- what nationality was he?
- was he self-educated?
- What did he do as a child?
- Orientation?
Andreas Vesalius:
- was Belgian
- Classical education. No.
- Dissected animals as child.
- Galenist in orientation.
Andreas Vesalius
-Who did he do for Jacobus Sylvius?
- What did Vesalius notice about Galen's work?
-Where did he grad. and teach?
-Was "On the Fabric of the Human Body" well recieved?
-did dissections for J. Sylvius
-Noticed discrepancies in Galen's work: realized Galen never did a dissection
-Graduated from taught at Padua
-NOT well received - gave it up
What did Andreas Vesalius teach?
- how did he get corpses for dissection?
- Did Vesalius' students do one dissection at a time?
- He taught anatomy at Padua
- Judge would execute in winter according to his teaching sched.
-did many dissections simultaneously: muscles, nerves, viscera, skeleton.
Talk about "On the Fabric of Human Health"
- Andreas Vesalius
- 28 years old
- 7 parts: skeleton, muscles, vascular system, nervous system, abd. system, thoracic, brain&eye
Did Vesalius agree with Galen that the human body was perfectly designed by God?
Yes. He agreed with Galen on this point.
Michael Servetus:
-A child during which era?
-What did he write?
-Accepted at Nicean Council?
-Offended whom?
Michael Servetus:
-Child during Reformation
-On the Errors of the Trinity
-Offended Protestant & Catholic
What were Michael Servetus' arguments for Pulmonary Circulation?
-No pores in septum, so blood must get to LS of heart by other means. -Pulmonary artery HUGE
-Blood to/from heart diff colour
Who succeeded Vesalius at Padua?
Realdo Colombo. (He later accused Vesalius of errors)
What was Realdo Colombo's contribution?
Posthumous publication of a clear statement of Pulmonary circulation (did he see Servatus' book?)
Andrea Cesalpino produce a coherent, concentrated argument for pulmonary circulation.
- No, Cesalpino never did write a clear agrument for pulmonary circulation.
Girolamo Fabrici:
-Where did he teach?
-Did he like to teach?
-Who was his student?
-What did he write?
Girolamo Fabrici:
-Hated teaching.
-William Harvey his student
-On Valves of Veins (1603)
William Harvey:
-Nationality? Studied where?
-What did he conclude in 1616?
-What did he publish, and where?
William Harvey:
-English, studied at Padua.
-1616: blood circulates.
-On the movement of the heart and blood. Pub. in Germany.
Why did William Harvey not think blood not produced from food?
-Because each heart beat expelled 2 ounces of blood (600 lbs of blood per hour) too much for food.
What were some unanswered questions from Harvey's work?
-How arteries/veins connected?
-How tissues nourished if they don't consume blood?
-is heart only a pump?
-What does liver do if not make blood?
What are four significances of Harvey's work?
-Blood circulation
-Model of good lab biology
-Mechanical view of life
-Blood transfusion
What is the difference between mechanicism and vitalism?
Mechanicism: living processes are the conseq. of fundamental laws of physics, chemistry, mechanics.
VITALISM: living processes depend on vital force not explainable by fund. laws.
Rene Descartes:
-Did his model of living things involve chemistry?
-Thoughts on universe?
-Humans have soul? Animals?
Rene Descartes:
-No chem., just physics, engineering
-Universe mechanical
-Humans alone have souls.
Where did Rene Descartes think soul was?
In Pineal gland because it was not divided into right and left.
Giovanni Borelli:
-Did he think muscles had air?
Giovanni Borelli:
-Air didn't inflate muscles.
-Heart not heat engine
-Digestion mechanical
Julien de la Mattrie:
-describe in a few words.
-Thoughts on the soul?
-Scientific laws of what?
-How did he die?
Julien de la Mattrie:
-athiest priest, free-thinker, everyone's enemy
-no soul. Given to sensuality.
-Scientific laws of mind
-Ate too much truffle pastry
Which Greek playwright mentioned a convex lens in the 422 BCE play "Clouds"?
Did Pliny have a concept of mircroscopy?
He knew a globe filled with water could magnify small things.
What about the 1st century Roman Philosopher Seneca? Did he use microscopy?
He knew globes could magnify small writings when eyes were failing.
What did Alhazen know about the lens of the eye?
Alhazen knew lens of eye could focus image on retina.
What did Robert Grosseteste and Roger Bacon know about microscopy?
-They might have made telescopes
-Burning lenses
-Eye glasses
When was the microscope invented and who is given credit?
Microscope invented around 1590 by 3 Dutch spectacle makers: Hans Lippershay and Janssen Brothers.
Talk about early compound microscopes:
- realized advantage of what?
- magnification of what power?
- problem?
-realized adv. of two lenses
-10 x
- aberrations (distortions) a problem
Did everyone like microscopes?
Nope - of course not. People thought they were unnatural, misleading and witchcraft.
Who did the first drawing of a magnified object, when and what was it?
-Francisco Stelluti
- 1630
-Drawing of Bees
Where does the word "cells" come from? What did Hooke invent (stole by Newton?) - What work did he publish?
-Robert Hooke looked at cork: called chambers cells.
-Inverse square law of gravity
-Micrographia (1665)
Did Robert Hooke look at non-living or living cells?
Mostly non-living cells.
Who looked at capllaries in frog lungs and made the connection between veins and arteries?
Why Marcello Malphigi of course.
Who was the first person to see embryonic development in chickens?
-Marcello Malphigi though William Harvey was also interested with embryology at later stages.
What are Malphigian Tubules?
-Aid in insect excretion. Eew.
Antoni Van Leeuwenhoek
-Inspired by what work?
Van Leeuwenhoek:
-Cloth merchant
-No Latin: independence.
Talk about Van Leeuwenhoek's microscopes
-He did it all - smelted metal, made lens, etc. His design did not spawn progeny. One lens had less aberrations, but limits magnification
Did Van Leeuwenhoek tell how he made lenses? Power? Students? Stage/Coverslips?
-No, never let on. 100-200x. He didn't like students. No stage, coverslips.
How many letters did Van Leeuwenhoek write to Royal Society? Personal life?
400 letters accompanied by illustrations he hired artists to draw. Tragic. Widower twice.