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20 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the 5 principles of civilizations?
-gvts n cities
-written records
-specialized labor
-advanced technology
What were the 1st civilizations?
Near what natural feature did they begin?

Name 8 modern day countries that make up the middle east
Sumer (technology)
-irrigation ditches
-had a 270 day calendar
-invented the cuneiform written language
-made up of 3000 wedge-like symbols
-only 250 scribes still exist today
-the oldest written story found = the epic of Gilgamesh
-started in 2330 BC
-conquered Sumer becauser they were united when sumer was divided.
-came from syria
-led by sargon the 1st
-introduced the arabic language to he middle east
-resembled sumer culturally and religiously
-capital city = akkad
-declined when sargon died
-meaning = land between two rivers
-nickname = the fertile crescent
-located between the tigris and euphrates rivers
-located in modern day middle east
-1600 BC
-conquered Babylonians
-more humane than other empires
-laws focused on repaying (fines)
-invented chariots
-1st to domesticate horses n use irom
-came from turkey
-signed a treaty w/ramses II
-spoke 8languages n wrote cuneiform n hieroglyphics
-resembled sumer
-capital = Hattusa
-reason for decline = unknownw
-metal ores= abundant in hittite lands
-3500 BC
-influenced all other civilizations
-located in Iraq
-faced floods, droughts and constant attacks
-divided in 12 city states
-4 most important:
-all had small, walled cities and a common culture
-traded n worshipped together, but never united
Define polytheism
the belief in more than one god
what is a ziggurat?
a pyramid shaped temple
Define Theocracy. why is it a bad way to govern?
form of government under which the ruler is seen as a divine figure
the citizens lose their belief in god
-1800 bc
-conquered akkadians
-from babylon
-capital = babylon
-led by hammurabi
-hammurabi's code of 282 laws
-principle= an eye for an eye
-resembled sumer
-declined after hammurabi's death
define geography
the study of earth n the ppl on it
-1000 bc
-founded by abraham (from ur)
-mad a covenant with yahweh
studied n prevented diseases
-made a treaty with the phoenicians
-abraham took his ppl to canaan
-a famine forced them to go to egypt
hebrews/israelites/jews (egypt)
-enslaved by pharaoh ahmose
-seti I = kills all 1st born sons
-moses = frees jews
-10 plagues n parting of red sea
-Ramses allows jews to leave
-exodus= journey from egypt to canaan
-moses receives the 10 commandments durin the exodus
- 1000 bc
-economical empiure
-originally known as Kinanu or canaanites
-never conquered anyone n traded
-were controlled by:
-babylonians at some point
-located in turkey
-seafaring peopl
-hanno established 6 cities around the mediterranean
-byblos = produced papyrus
-carthage (led by hannibal)= later defeated by rome
-spoke arabic
-resembled sumer
phoenicians (technology)
-red/purple dye
-22 letter alphabet
-transparent glass
-skilled merchants
-skilled shipbuilders
-1st to colonize area around the mediterranean sea
-asked to build a temple in jerusalem by King solomon
-1000 bc
-economical empire
-invented currency
define alluvial soil deposits
sand n mud deposited by flooding water
hebrews/israelites/jews (after egypt)
-renamed canaan juda
-chaldean ruler, nebuchadnezaar enslaves the jews
-hebrews write the torah (establish monotheism)
-sabbath= day of rest (saturday)
-cyrus from persia allows the jes back to israel
-4 central beliefs
-one god (yahweh)
-moral code of law (10 commandments)
-yahweh controls history n events
- one day a messiah will come