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41 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Vasco de Gama
A Portuguese explorer from the 15th century who sailed
from Lisbon Portugal to Asia for trading purposes.
Christopher Columbus
(1451-1506) was an Italian explorer
who sailed across the Atlantic Ocean in 1492, hoping to find
a route to India (in order to trade for spices). He made a total
of four trips to the Caribbean and South America during the
years 1492-1504.
Cape of Good Hope
The southernmost tip of Africa. All men were afraid to cross that one spot behind the cliff because they didn’t know what was there.
Any system that resembles the one used in the middle ages, where
the people provided labor and military service to a lord in return for
the use of his land- A form of contractual servitude.
Political and economic system in which a king or queen shared power
with the nobility, who required services from the common people in return
for allowing them to use the noble's land.
the sovereign power or ultimate authority in the state rested in the hands of a king who claimed to rule by divine right
Divine Right of Kings
That the King was chosen by God. You must follow the
King’s rule or you will be disobeying God.
Constitutionalism/constitutional monarchy
The belief that governments will defer to the rules and principles enshrined in a constitution and uphold the rule of law.
King Louis XIV
He inherited the Crown at the age of four. He created Versailles—he wanted the nobles to come to his “town” so that France could be controlled by people he liked. He almost brought France into bankruptcy. “I am the State”. The Sun King. Absolute Monarchy. He dies: 1715- state was bankrupt and the nobles were out of power.
Louis XIV created it to represent wealth and power over all. This estate almost caused bankruptcy. There was 17 acres worth of just buildings w/ 1,400 fountains in and around the “city”. It had indoor tennis courts and a wooded area for hunting.
James I
the first Stuart to be king of England and Ireland from 1603 to 1625 and king of Scotland from 1567 to 1625; he was the son of Mary Queen of Scots and he succeeded Elizabeth I; he alienated the British Parliament by claiming the divine right of kings (1566-1625)
Oliver Cromwell
He led the rebellion against King Charles. He is a military genius. He then goes to parliament after his “side” wins. He removes all who supported the King. He works to stay in power in England—for 9 years because of his strong military and he is a puritan (good for trade)
Glorious Revolution
overthrow of James II of England in 1688. The event is sometimes referred to as the "Bloodless Revolution"
English Bill of Rights
An act passed by Parliament in 1689 which limited the power of the monarch. This document established Parliament as the most powerful branch of the English government.
Scientific Revolution
A new age where philosophy was of high importance—the 1500’s. We got some of the greatest thinkers of all time. It was popular to have all aspects of philosophy- the arts, dance, science, religion…etc.
Nicolaus Copernicus
February 19, 1473 – May 24, 1543) was a Polish astronomer, mathematician and economist who developed the heliocentric (Sun-centered) theory. He was also a Monk. One reason he got into religion was to access the books.
Margaret Cavendish
Duchess of Newcastle (1623-15 December 1673) was an English aristocrat and writer. She wrote of Scientist’s discoveries and successes.
Thomas Hobbes
English materialist and political philosopher who advocated absolute sovereignty as the only kind of government that could resolve problems caused by the selfishness of human beings (1588-1679). Wrote Leviathon—you can break everything down by reason.
John Locke
a 17th-century philosopher concerned primarily with society and epistemology. An Englishman, Locke's notions of a "government with the consent of the governed" and man's natural rights—life, liberty, and estate (property)—had an enormous influence on the development of political philosophy.
Natural Rights
man's natural rights—life, liberty, and estate (property)
The belief that there is a God who created the universe, but that after creating it he left it to regulate itself and doesn't step in to provide miracles or the like.
broad intellectual movement in eighteenth-century Europe, particularly Britain, France and Germany, characterized by a rejection of superstition and mystery and an optimism concerning the power of human reasoning and scientific endeavor (hence its alternative name: The Age of Reason).
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
French philosopher and writer born in Switzerland; believed that the natural goodness of man was warped by society; ideas influenced the French Revolution
A French philosopher who was against absolute monarchy and proposed that the Government and society be led by a small group of elites. (Enlightenment period)
Mary Wollstonecraft
English writer and early feminist who denied male supremacy and advocated equal education for women. During Enlightenment period.
An art exhibition in France.
Adam Smith
Considered the father of modern economics or the father of capitalism. Scottish economist who advocated private enterprise and free trade. Wealth of Nations was one of the earliest attempts to study the historical development of industry and commerce in Europe. That work helped to create the modern academic discipline of economics and provided one of the best-known intellectual rationales for free trade and capitalism.
African slave trade
Slavery is a condition of control over a person against their will, enforced by violence or other forms of coercion. Slavery almost always occurs for the purpose of securing the labor of the person concerned. A specific form, known as chattel slavery, implies the legal ownership of a person or persons.
the capital and largest city of Somalia; a port on the Indian Ocean
the third Mughal emperor of India (1556-1605), generally considered the true founder of the Mughal Empire in India. He was a rare ruler, legendary for his tolerance and a patron of all major religions of his immense empire.
Peacock Throne
The Peacock Throne was made for the Mughal Shah Jahan in the 17th century and taken from Delhi by Nadir Shah of Persia during his invasion of the Mughal Empire in 1739.
Chinese Civil Service Exam
Tests for future governmental and religious officers (only the most elite can be here). The government felt a need to support this system because they are funding their own future officials, but the schools were only intended for the privileged. If you do well you are guaranteed a job. It’s only offered every two years and it is very difficult because it lasts three days. 14th century. You need to be educated in every aspect of philosophy.
Schools in China
They were being funded by the government, but they were only intended for the elite. Most could not afford the luxury of their children attending classes.
Children of China
The children were better off in a richer family because they were able to go to school even though there were geniuses in the lower classes.
A trading post in China
the Forbidden City
Beijing, China. Its extensive grounds cover 720,000 square meters (approximately 178 acres). The Forbidden City has 800 buildings with 8,886 rooms. No one could enter it without the emperor’s permission. The wall around the Forbidden City has a gate on each side. At the southern end is the Meridian Gate. To the north is the Gate of Divine Might, which faces Jingshan Park. The Gate of Divine Might is also called the Gate of Divine Military Genius. This is the main gate, used by everyone but the emperor (because he used the Meridian Gate). Started building in 1406 and it took 4 years.
The Stamp Act
passed by the British Parliament- March 22, 1765. put on all American colonist- tax on every piece of printed paper they used. Ship's papers, legal documents, licenses, newspapers, other publications, and even playing cards were taxed. The money collected by the Stamp Act was to be used to help pay the costs of defending and protecting the American frontier near the Appalachian Mountains (10,000 troops were to be stationed on the American frontier for this purpose).
Past Taxes- measures to regulate commerce
New taxes- to raise money. The Stamp Act, however, was viewed as a direct attempt by England to raise money in the colonies without the approval of the colonial legislatures.
Thomas Paine’s Common Sense
Published in 1776, Common Sense challenged the authority of the British government and the royal monarchy. The plain language that Paine used spoke to the common people of America and was the first work to openly ask for independence from Great Britain.
The encyclopedia put forth ideas of enlightenment. It was made by the mistress of the King. It explained many aspects of society.
Louis XVI
King of France in 1700s -executed for treason by the National Convention-absolute monarch-husband of Marie Antoinette.
Tennis Court Oath
Taken by the National Assembly-stated that they would not disband until they had made a new constitution. Met at an actual tennis court because they were unable to go to their meeting place.
They are the second class of the ranking system. They were of Spanish descent who were born in the colonies. Farthest descent from Spain, but they were born somewhere else. They were identical to the Peninsulares, but they weren’t born in Spain. They could control the wealth. They owned plantations for sugars and other goods. Also mines. Local political positions and most of the priests