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31 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Edwin Drake
the man who "discovered" oil
Bessemer process
A method for making steel by blasting compressed air through molten iron to burn out excess carbon and impurities.
Thomas Edison
the man who invented the light bulb
Christopher Sholes
the man who invented the type-writer
Alexander Graham Bell
the man who invented the telephone
transcontinental railroad
A train route across the United States, finished in 1869. It was the project of two railroad companies: the Union Pacific built from the east, and the Central Pacific built from the west. The two lines met in Utah. The Central Pacific laborers were predominantly Chinese, and the Union Pacific laborers predominantly Irish. Both groups often worked under harsh conditions.
George Pullman
American industrialist and developer of the railroad sleeping car
Credit Mobilier
ephemeral construction company, connected with the building of the Union Pacific RR and involved in one of the major financial scandals in American history.
Interstate Commerce Act
a law, enacted in 1887, that reestablished the federal government's right to supervise railroad activities and created a 5-member Interstate Commerce Commission to do so
Granger laws
an organization of farmers
Andrew Carnegie
immigrant who went from rags to riches in the steel business
Vertical integration
a company's taking over its suppliers and distributors and transportation systems to gain total control over the quality and cost of its product
Horizontal integration
the merging of companies that make similar products
Social Darwinism
an economic and social philosophy supposedly based on the biologist Charles Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection holding that a system of restrained competition will ensure the survival of the fittest
John D. Rockefeller
established Standard Oil company and used a trust to gain total control of the oil industry in America
Sherman Antitrust Act
an act formed in 1890 that made it illegal to form a trust that interfered with free trade between states or with other countries, but the act didn't clearly define trust so prosecuting companies wasn't so easy
Samuel Gompers
led the Cigar Makers' International Union ot join with other craft unions in 1886
AFL (American Federation of Labor)
an alliance of trade and craft unions formed in 1886
Eugene V. Debs
made 1st major attempt to form an industrial union with skilled and unskilled workers in a specific industry
IWW (Industrial Workers of the World)
a labor organization for unskilled workers, formed by a group of radical unionists and socialists in 1905
Mary Harris Jones
prominent organizer in women's labor movement
Ellis Island
the chief immigration station of the U.S. on the east coast from 1892-1943
Angel Island
an island used to process mainly Asian immigrants to the U.S. from 1910 to 1940
melting pot
a mixture of people of different cultures and races who blended together by abandoning their native languages and customs
nativism
overt favoritism toward native-born Americans
Chinese Exclusion Act
1892 act that banned all Chinese immigration except students, teachers, merchants, tourists, and government officials/ not repealed until 1942
Gentlemen's Agreement
a 1907-1908 agreement by the government of Japan to limit Japanese emigration to the United States
urbanization
growth of cities
tenement
multifamily urban dwellings that were overcrowded and unsanitary
Settlement houses
community centers in slum neighborhoods that provided assistance to people in the area, especially immigrants
Jane Addams
American social reformer and pacifist who founded Hull House (1889), a care and education center for the poor of Chicago, and worked for peace and many social reforms. She shared the 1931 Nobel Peace Prize.