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20 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Emperor of Byzantine Empire
Born in 527 AD
Reconquered Italy, North Africa, Spain
Reconquest exchausted resources
Did not have enough funds to defend eastern border against Persians
Justinian Code- basis of future legal systems
Constructed roads, aqueducts, monasteries, churches
Commissioned building of Hagia Sophia
Died in 565
Alfred the Great
United Anglo-Saxon kingdoms in 866
Founded schools in England
Translated books from Latin to Anglo-Saxon
Scholars wrote the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle (history of England)
Successors were weak (Edward the Confessor)
Prophet of Islam
Born in Mecca in 570
Revelations from Angel Gabril in 610
Returned to Mecca to preach
One true God to worship
All who believed in God were equal
Followers became Muslim
Received death threats in Mecca
Migrated to Madinah where he was accepted
624- Madinah Compact laid foundation of Islamic State
Returned to Mecca with strength
Islam spread to the entire Arabian Peninsula after his death
Ivan III
Known as Ivan the Great
United many Eastern Slavic principalities under his rule
Refused to pay taxes to Mongols in 1480
Wife of Justinian
Actress looked down upon but married anyway
Worked to improve social status of women
Persuaded Justinian to stay and fight off rebellions in 532
Gave Justinian chance to rule Empire without challenge
Genghis Khan
United scattered Mongolian clans under his rule in 1200
Real name was Temujin
Took the name "universal ruler" in 1206
Created new law code- Yasa
Organized army into flexible groups
Conquered surrounding tribes and then China
Learned many new technologies like gunpowder
Died in 1227
Became first Merovingian ruler to be king of the Franks in 481
First Germanic ruler to accept Catholicism
Strong military victories gave throne stability
Pope Innocent III
Convened council to condemn drunkenness, feasting among clergy in 1215
Set strict rules on heresy
Called the Fourth Crusade in hopes of regaining control of Jerusalem from Muslims
Became Frankish king in 768
Began the Carolingian Dynasty
Doubled borders
First time since Rome that most of Western Europe was under one government
Set up a school at Aachen, his capital
Defended Pope Leo III against Roman nobles in 800
Crowned the new Roman Emperor
William the Conqueror
Duke of Normandy
Laid claim to throne of England after his cousin, Edward the Confessor, died in 1066
Defeated Harold Godwinson at Battle of Hastings
Won the English crown
Carried out first census since Roman times
Recorded into Domesday Book
Henry II
King of England in 1100s
Set up system of common law applied equally throughout country
Required clergy to pay taxes because government needed money
Thomas Becket, archbishop of Canterbury, opposed
Murdered in 1170 by knights who believed they were acting on King Henry II's orders
Joan of Arc
Went to the court of King Charles VII of France in 1429
Gained support and inspired French army to win at Orleans
Helped to crown Charles VII king of France
Tried for witchcraft by England
Burned at the stake
Strong Muslim leader
Captured Jerusalem in 1187 which led to the Third Crusade
Saladin's army held strong against Richard I
Made failed attempt at peace treaty
Led to Massacre at Acre
Richard I turned back and Saladin kept control of Jerusalem
Thomas Aquinas
Scholastic thinker of 1200s
Wrote Summa Theologica
Claimed that reason could provide answers to philosophical questions
Catholic church later accepted Aquinas' views on reason
Richard I (the Lionhearted)
King of England during 1100s
Son of Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine
Went on Third Crusade
Could not win major battle against Saladin
Turned back to return to the Holy Roman Empire without gaining Jerusalem
Eleanor of Aquitaine
Wife of King Henry II of England and King Louis VII of France
Influential during Henry II's reign from 1135 to 1170
Marco Polo
Venetian who arrived in Kublai Khan's court around 1271
Traveled in Mongol territory on Kublai's missions
Returned to Venice to be thrown in jail
Recited splendors of Mongolian territory to Rusticello, his cellmate
Recorded stories into Description of the World
Nicknamed "Prince of Liars"
Nobody believed his book
Kublai Khan
First great Mongol Emperor of China
Reigned from 1260 to 1294
Began the Yuan Dynasty
Expanded borders into Korea and Southeast Asia
Respected Chinese culture, did not destroy it
Gave high positions in government to Mongols
Ruled during Pax Mongolica
After death in 1294, Chinese overthrew weak successors
Hugh Capet
Began the Capetian dynasty in 987 after ending the Carolingian dynasty
Controlled city of Paris and strip of land between Seine and Loire rivers
Lasted for more than 3 centuries
Pepin the Short
Became King of Franks in 754
Pepin defended Pope against Lombards
Gave strip of Lombard land to Pope (Papal States)
Formed bond between Western Europe and the church