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81 Cards in this Set

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a land bridge roughly 1,000 milesnorth to south at its greatest extent which joinedpresent-day Alaska and eastern Siberia during the Pleistocene ice ages. It was important because duringcycles of global cooling during the ice age, enough sea water became concentrated in the ice caps of the Arctic and Antarctic that it exposed shallow sea floors. Also, it enabled human migration to the Americas from Asia about 12,000 yrs. ago.

This connected Present day Russia and Alaska.
Bering Land Bridge a.k.a. Beringia
a famous navigator and maritime explorer from Italy who was credited as the discoverer of America, although he didn't, Spain sponsored him.
nation depends upon supply of capital or money
Law that required a tax to be paid on the transfer of certain documents such as wills, newspapers, and playing cards. It was a DIRECT tax. It was passed by Parliament in 1765.
Stamp Act
Nathaniel Bacon brought together people that were angry with the govt. of VA in the largest popular revolt before the American Rev. He force burned Jamestown.
Bacon's Rebellion
Spanish adventurer in the sixteenth century.
Credited with the first successful ultivation of tobacco in VA and was the husband of Pocohantas.
John Rolfe
Unauthorized Puritan preacher and a pioneer settler in Rhode Island and the Bronx.
Anne Hutchinson
Settled in MASS Bay Colony and became a preacher of a church in Salem. He preached that the church and the govt. should be separate because concern with political affairs would corrupt the church and he asserted that the colonists had no right to settle on the land unless bought it from the Indians.

Started Rhode Island.
Roger Williams
Native American woman who married John Rolfe. She was the daughter of Chief of Powhatan. She helped Americans.
an English soldier, sailor, and author. He is remembered for his role in establishing the first permanent English settlement in North America, and his brief association with the Native American girl Pocahontas during an altercation with the Powhatan Confederacy, and her father, Chief Powhatan. He was a leader of the Virginia Colony, based at Jamestown between 1607 and 1609, and led much exploration along
the rivers and the Chesapeake Bay.
John Smith
They authorized the expedition of Christopher Columbus
Ferdinand and Isabella
a politician and one of the Founding Fathers of the United States of America. He served both as that nation's first Vice President (1789-1797), and as its second President (1797-1801). He was defeated for re-election in the "Revolution of 1800" by Thomas Jefferson. Adams was a sponsor of the American Revolution in Massachusetts, and a diplomat in the 1770s. He was a driving force for independence in 1776; in fact, the "Colossus of Independence," in Jefferson understands.
John Adams
having arguments over the line of demarcation, in 1494 Spain and Portugal resolved their differences for the sake of peace and concord” in the Treaty of Tordesillas. This treaty moved the line of demarcation nearly 1,000 miles further west, and extended it around the earth to secure Portuguese claims in Asia.
Treaty of Tordesillas
during the 3- pronged attack Burgoyne was heading south from Montreal on his way to Albany, and the Continental army surrounded his troops. He surrenders on October 1777 because he wasn't able to get food or retreat to Ticonderoga. Gained Frances Aid.
Battle of Saratoga
ratified in 1781, document established to unite that states and establish its own legal authority. Main author → John Dickinson
Weakness- National government under the A of C proved too weak to operate. There was no executive branch to carry out laws; no federal courts existed to interpret them. Executive power was divided among several congressional committees. Disputes with Great Britain- Congress had no power to tax and power to regulate commerce; congress couldn’t tax so they had to depend on the states for its income. Without $$ and power, Congress commanded so little respect that its members did not bother to attend sessions.
Articles of Confederation
(from NY) An outspoken speaker of a strong central government. He persuaded the other delegates at the Annapolis convention to propose another convention. Its purpose was to regulate commerce and propose measures making the national government more effective. He also proposed the idea of having a Bank of United States. He believed that the federal government payments of the states would give them a better interest in the central government.
Alexander Hamilton
it dealt with implied powers of government. It also provided better control over the nation's economy. In 1791, it was established for a 20 year period with a capital investment of $10 million.
B.U.S. (Bank of United States)
he was a lawyer in Virginia, he wasn't in the Philadelphia Convention because he was in Europe along with John Adams and Thomas Paine. He called it the "Assembly of Demigods". He took part in writing the Declaration of Independence. He became Vice President with John Adams.
Thomas Jefferson
Everyone at the convention agreed on the need for an executive branch to operate the government, but some delegates favored a group executive, so no one individual could become too powerful. In the final weeks of the convention, compromises were achieved stating that a single executive would serve a 4-year term and would be chosen by special electors named by the legislature of each state. Delegates created a Supreme Court and empowered the new government to create “such inferior Courts as the Congress may from time to time ordain and establish.” New government could levy and collect taxes. It could regulate commerce with foreign nations & between the states. It could write and enforce commercial treaties that would increase foreign trade, and it could keep trade among the states free of barriers. It could coin $ and regulate its value, so there could be a national standard of $ instead of state currencies with differing values. The new national government could carry out all the powers given to it.
Branches of Government
this system keeps each branch from gaining more power than another branch.
First, the legislative branch introduces and votes on a bill. The bill then goes to the executive branch, where the President decides whether he thinks the bill is good for the country. If so, he signs the bill, and it becomes a law.

If the President does not believe the bill is good for the country, he does not sign it. This is called a veto. But the legislative branch gets another chance. With enough votes, the legislative branch can override the executive branch's veto, and the bill becomes a law.

Once a law is in place, the people of the country can test it through the court system, which is under the control of the judicial branch. If someone believes a law is unfair, a lawsuit can be filed. Lawyers then make arguments for and against the case, and a judge decides which side has presented the most convincing arguments. The side that loses can choose to appeal to a higher court, and may eventually reach the highest court of all, the Supreme Court.

If the legislative branch does not agree with the way in which the judicial branch has interpreted the law, they can introduce a new piece of legislation, and the process starts all over again.
Checks and Balances
European explores started to further explore for many reasons:
Sea route to Asia
Find gold, silver and other valuable things

Expand their knowledge of the world

To spread their religious ideas

Find more trade routes (increase economy)
Reasons for Exploration
Congress passed this law to provide for “strong toned government”; provided a democratic model for national expansion. It also extended into the territories personal rights, such as freedom of speech, religion and assembly. It prohibited slavery north of the Ohio River.
Northwest Ordinance
a group of British soldiers was secretly sent to destroy the military supplies the colonists had gathered at Concord. When British reached the town of Lexington, about 70 minute men awaited them. The colonists were ordered to drop their weapons and disperse. Then someone fired a shot-leaving 8 killed and 10 wounded. Then the British marched down to Concord and burned everything.
Lexington and Concord
England and France both wanted control of the Ohio River. The French drove out English fur traders and in 1754 built Fort Duquesne. This fort was a threat to the VA colonists. So the colonists sent a VA militia to attack the fort. Under Commander George Washington, they attacked this fort and Washington and his force were captured by the French at fort Necessity. General Edward Braddock led 1,450 troops including Washington and Danielle Boone in another attack on Fort Duquesne. Because of this many natives switched from British to French. The fall of Quebec meant the end of the French Empire in North America.
French and Indian War
unable to raise sufficient troops in Great Britain because the wart was unpopular, King George III hired mercenaries (paid soldiers) from the rulers of small German states. These paid soldiers were known as “Hessians” because a large number were supplied by the Prince of Hesse.
On December 25, Washington crossed the Delaware River with his troops while it was freezing outside. The Hessians were drunk because of Christmas, and Colonel Johann Gottlieb Rall was in charge. Washington's troops attack at the dawn of December 26 and captured 1000 Hessians. This was during the Battle of Trenton.
Society of Friends who were seeking refuge from persecution. Quakers were considered religious radicals in England because they believed that paid clergy were unnecessary and that every person could know God's will through his or her own

"inner light" They also refused to perform military service, or to swear oaths. They were detested in England and persecuted as anarchists in America.
The first representative assembly in America by the London Company in 1619 giving settlers a voice in the government. These burgesses and a council appointed by the governor together had power to make laws.
House of Burgesses
Joined the Quakers when he was a student at Oxford. Started the most successful colony in America that served as a refuge for persecuted Quakers. This colony was Pennsylvania.
William Penn
1740s - Colonies experience a religious revival. Puritan ministers began to talk about the impending dangers o hell. Influenced by John Edwards of Northampton. New churches formed, people felt free to choose their religion. Diversity of churches made religious toleration more essential. New colleges at Princeton, Brown, Rutgers, Dartmouth-More belief in education and an increase in its importance. The interest in different areas such as science led to new ideas and theories.
Great Awakening
Financial supported by King Charles I of Spain to sail around the world to the Spice Islands. In 1519, he set sail with 5 ships and by Oct. 1520 he had reach the strait at the Southern tip of South America that now bears his name. Since the ocean seemed calm, Magellan called it the Pacific meaning, “peaceful.” During the voyage across Pacific that followed, the sailors lacked from fresh food and water and many died. Magellan died in April 1521 as the result of a local war in the Philippines. 1 of his ships carrying 18 survivors reached back to Spain in 1522. These survivors and their ships were the first to circumnavigate the world.
Governor of Puerto Rico who was one of the first Spaniards to head to northern lands. Went in search for a wondrous fountain whose water would restore youth. He didn't find the fountain, but found land and named it Florida and claimed it for Spain. Claimed Florida.
Ponce de Leon
In 1534, he made the first of three voyages to northern America, searching for the northwest passage. Although, he explored the St. Lawrence River as far as what is now Montreal, he failed to find the passage. NORTHWEST PASSAGE.
Jacques Cartier
Insisted that, like all humans, Indians were children of God and therefore should be protected by the Church and the king. Spanish missornary. Battle of Quebec where Montcals was defeated by James Wolfe.
Bartolome de las Casas
Proprietor who wanted Georgia to be both a refuge for poor English debtors and a military outpost against the Spaniards in Florida. Governor of GA.
James Oglethorpe
Large fleet of seemingly invincible ships dispatched by King Philip II of Spain to England in retaliation against English privacy. It included 130 ships and 27,000 troops.
Spanish Armada
Became Britain's minister of war in 1758. He changed the direction of the French and Indian War by giving aid to France's enemies in Europe forcing France to split its forces. He also sent talented young officers to lead the campaigns in North America. By the end of 1758, Louisburg and Fort Duquesne were in British hands, and British army was encamped in the St. Lawrence River.
William Pitt
Accused the royal government of corruption in the New York Weekly Journal. As a result, copies of the paper were publicly burned by the sheriff, and Zenger was brought to trial on a charge of libel. His lawyer, Andrew Hamilton, argued that he was not guilty since the charges were true and since free speech was a right of English people. Zenger was acquitted. His case today is regarded as a landmark in the development of free press in America.
John Peter Zenger
Albany plan of Union in which he proposed that the colonies form a Grand Council w/ the power to levy taxes, raise troops, and regulate trade w/ the Indians. Actions of this Grand Council would be subject to veto by the British crown.; Referred to the Boston Tea Party as an act of violent injustice; Oldest delegate at 81 to attend the Philly Convention and was one of the people who signed the Declaration of Independence. He propped that each session open w/ a prayer, to ask divine guidance in finding and acceptable compromise. United States most eminent citizen.
Benjamin Franklin
(VA) Settlers were sent by the London Company to settle here. Difficulties included: unhealthy settlement site, Indian attacks, starvation, and long ocean voyages.
plantation manager and soldier, he wasn’t a good politician. He was the first President and established the cabinet. Some precedents he set were: Chief Legislator, head of foreign affairs and the cabinet. He also knew the country inside and out because he had been to every state except Georgia. He was and American asset during the Revolutionary War and he won the battle of Trenton and Princeton. He also stayed with the soldiers at Valley Forge.
George Washington
a group of advisers to the President that continues to serve the same function today, Washington’s cabinet included: Henry Knox, Thomas Jefferson, Edmund Randolph, and Alexander Hamilton.
people who favored the constitution, they favored a strong national government.
Replaced the article of confederation, Gave congress the power to tax. Strong central government, still used today, can be amended to, 27 amendments, and 7 Articles
part of the first cabinet under Washington, and the head of department of War
Henry Knox
reflected an almost hysterical fear that French agents were using Republicans as dupes. It required all immigrants to register with the federal government and allowed the President to deport without trial any alien whom he considered dangerous to the peace and safety of the United States
Alien Act
broke out in the west in 1763. French had traded with the Native Americans, protected and intermarried with them. The British threatened to wipe them out. Pontiac's forces captured British forts North West of Ohio River Valley. During this rebellion the government passed the Proclamation of 1763.
Pontiac's Rebellion
attempted to muzzle the Republican press by making it a crime to speak or publish anything false or malicious against the federal government or any of its officers
Sedition Act
tired to weaken this Republican strength by extending the residency requirement for citizenship from 5 to 14 years.
Naturalization Act
people who opposed the constitution, and supported strong state government, the states have more power than the national government.
Sided by Jefferson and Madison. They were pro French, Anti BUS, Strict Constructionists; they aimed for the people in the south and the west, mostly farmers.
a collection of 85 essays written by Hamilton, Madison, and John Jay. Originally published as newspaper articles in the New York Journal, the essays explained in detail the importance of the Constitution to the success of the nation.
The Federalist Papers
Proposed by William Patterson, The New Jersey Plan proposed a single-chamber legislature in which each state, regardless of size, would have one vote, as under the Articles of Confederation
Proposed by James Madison. Was mainly a dispute between large states and small states over representation by population
Established that 5 slaves would be equal to 3 free persons for both representation and taxation.
3/5 Compromise
Date was originally was set to be May 14, 1787. There were not enough members so the date was now May 24. Eventually 12 out of 13 states were represented. The 55 delegates included many important people: Most were lawyers or judges, 21 had college degrees. Thomas Jefferson, John Adams and Thomas Paine were all in Europe so they were missing the convention. Mass. did not send Hancock or Samuel Adams. Many people attended and James Madison, who was well prepared, proposed the Virginia plan and William Patterson proposed the NJ Plan in this important Philadelphia Convention.
Philadelphia Convention
Was also known as the Unalienable Rights. The were the first ten amendments. It Protected citizen's natural rights. Anti-Federalist insisted that Congress provide a bill of Rights during ratification of campaign.
Bill of Rights
a body of electors; especially: one that elects the president and vice president of the United States. he United States Electoral College is the official name of the group of Presidential Electors who are chosen every four years to cast the electoral vote and thereby elect the President and Vice President of the United States. It was established by Article Two, Section One of the United States Constitution, which provides for a quadrennial election of Presidential Electors in each state.
Electoral College
This changed after the constitution. Congress is made up of two chambers; the senate and the House of Representatives. Congress can carry out laws and tax people. It also can carry out the laws.
Powers of Congress
s the process by which a legislative body formally levels charges against a high official of government. Impeachment does not necessarily mean removal from office; it comprises only a formal statement of charges, akin to an indictment in criminal law, and thus is only the first step towards possible removal. Once an individual is impeached, he or she must then face the possibility of conviction via legislative vote, which then entails the removal of the individual from office. Charge a govt. officaial with a crime. House impeaches and jury and senate and chief justice watch. Clinton and Johnson.
American presidential election and the first one to elect a President and Vice-President from opposing tickets, exposing potential flaws in the original Electoral College system. Vice President John Adams was a candidate for the presidency on the Federalist Party ticket with Thomas Pinckney as his running mate. Although Adams won, his opponent, Thomas Jefferson on the Democratic-Republican ticket received more votes than Pinckney and was elected Vice-President.
Election of 1796
this treaty permitted the United States a very limited trade with the British West Indies, but none with Canadian posts. The British promised once again to evacuate their forts in American territory if the US let them keep fur trade with the Indians. American ships were allowed into ports in the British Isles on the same terms as British ships in American ports. This treaty kept the status-quo. As a result to this treat the Pinckney Treaty was formed.
Jay Treaty
The Middle Passage Atlantic slave trade transported African people from Africa to markets in North America, South America and the Caribbean (The Americas). It was called the Middle Passage because the slave trade was a form of Triangular trade; ships left Europe for African markets, sailed to Africa where the goods were sold or traded for people in the African slave markets, then sailed to the Americas and Caribbean (West Indies) where the Africans were sold or traded for goods for European markets, and then returned to Europe.
Middle Passage
A famous book written by Thomas Paine. Maintaining “the cause of America is in a great measure the cause of all mankind, Paine passionately argued for independence from Great Britain and the ability of the young country to prosper unfettered by the oppressive and economically draining English.
Common Sense
Chief of Miami that had defeated American forces. Little Turtle defeated American forces near Ohio area. When he stepped down or died Blue Jacket took over his position as Chief.
Little Turtle
Wrote pamphlets such as "Common Sense" and "Crisis" which were used by George Washington to fire up his Continental Army. Also Common Sense had a large circulation and served to divide Americans
Thomas Paine
pilgrims set out from Plymouth, England to settle in America because they wanted to escape persecution, so they settled in Holland and didn't want to continue to live there because they didn't want children to grow up learning a different language and customs
one of the first acts passed by the new Congress; set up the Supreme Court and other lower federal courts
Judiciary Act of 1789
agreement made by Pilgrims to live under the laws of the community
Mayflower Compact
The Battle of Bunker Hill took place on June 17, 1775, as part of the Siege of Boston during the American Revolutionary War. It is considered by some to be the bloodiest battle of the war. General Israel Putnam was in charge of the revolutionary forces, and Major-General William Howe commanded the British forces. Among historians, it is debated whether General Putnam or Colonel William Prescott, the revolutionaries' second-in-command, ordered the troops, "Don't shoot until you see the whites of their eyes!" Although the battle is known as "Bunker Hill", most of the fighting took place on Breed's Hill nearby. On their third assault the British forces overran the revolutionaries' fortified earthworks on Breed's and Bunker Hill. The battle was a Pyrrhic victory for the British, who suffered more than 1000 casualties. Howe's immediate objective was achieved, but the attack demonstrated the American will to stand in pitched battle and did not change the status of the siege. After the battle, British General Henry Clinton remarked in his diary that "A few more such victories would have surely put an end to British dominion in America."
Bunker Hill
battle in which James Wolfe attacked a fortress in Quebec by scaling a cliff and then attacking the French troops; British volleys mowed down French and Canadian forces and with the loss of Quebec the French reign in North America was now over
Battle of Quebec
final battle of the Revolutionary War in which a large combined naval and on-ground attack was employed by George Washington; Degrasse from sea, Washington from NY, and Anthony Wayne and Lafayette verged on Yorktown
written by Thomas Jefferson, the Dec. of Independence publicly stated to Unions desire to have independence from Britain; the document was composed of a preamble, a list of grievances against King George III, a declaration of natural rights, and a Resolution of Independence of the United States
Declaration of Independence
address by George Washington in which he states the importance of federal government and warns the US against a party system
Farewell Address
served on the U.S. Supreme Court as the first Chief Justice of the United States and he negotiated the Jay Treaty with the British
John Jay
was an Italian navigator and explorer commonly credited as the first early modern European to discover the North American mainland, in 1497
John Cabot
Daniel Shays and other Revolutionary soldiers were angered over their unpaid debts and rebelled by attacking the Springfield arsenal to get more guns; met by MA militia; showed that the Articles of Confederation were weak
Shay's Rebellion
western PA citizens angry over excise tax on Whiskey; attacked tax collectors; met by 12000 federal troops led by Washington; showed that US is willing to solve any problems in any means necessary
Whiskey Rebellion
native American chief who captured a chain of forts that were controlled by the British
at the Battle of Monmouth, she took the place of her husband on the cannon and got $50.
Molly Pitcher a.k.a. Mary Ludwig Hays