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163 Cards in this Set

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A: International peace treaties of personal rule and why?
Treaty of Suza with France (1629) and Treaty of Madrid with Spain (1630) to avoid need for war taxation
A: 2 people Arrested for attack on bishops, 1 at start of personal rule 1 later
Alexander Leighton in 1630 and Bishops Williams of Lincoln in 1637
A: Nobility sent to their counties when, who fined, how many gentry
Sent to counties in June 1632, William Palmer fined £1000, 248 gentry summoned before Star Chamber
A: When did Charles let a papal agent in for the first time since when?
1634 since 1558
A: English opposition to Bishops war
Lord Say and Sele and Lord Brooke imprisoned in April 1639 for refusing to fight
A: Evidence that Charles wasn't absolutist
Didn't extend monarchic powers, didn't create a standing army, told his son "be not out of love" with Parliaments
A: Evidence of Laud angering gentry, also incident in Norwich
Removing importance of their Pews, in Peterborough in 1637 120 pews of gentry were hacked down. In Norwich Mayor refused to attend cathedral due to Laudian arguments
A: Distraint of Knighthood
Raised £165k by 1635 and 9000 forced to pay
A: Wardship
Raised £55k p/a
A: Monopolies
Popish soap brought £30k p/a but exploited loophole in 1624 act
A: Cut in Royal expenditure
In 1620's £500k p/a on military, in 1635 only £66k was
A: Tonnage and Poundage
Raised £358k in 1635
A: Forest Laws
Raised £40k including £20k off Earl of Salisbury
A: Selling Crown Lands and Purveyance
Raised £650k (1625-35) and £30k p/a respectively
A: Financial successes, what event crippled Charles financially?
By 1637 annual revenue of £1m, 50% higher than accession and debt cut from £2m in 1629 to £1m until Bishops Wars!
A: How much did ship money bring and %'s
£800k by 1640. 90% 1635-7, 80% 1638 and 25% 1639
B: Acts of Long Parliament protecting Parliament
Triennial act (Feb 1641 mimicking Scottish act) and Act Against Forcible Dissolution (May 1641)
B: Religious petitions to Parliament
Received 900 petitions about misdeed of Laudian clergy but also 26 anti-Root and Branch petitions (30,000 signatures in North Wales), 15000 signatures to root-and branch petition
B: How did Charles and Pym exacerbate Popish fears in 1641
1st Army Plot of May 1641 created national sense of fear, Pym's Protestation Oath (May 1641) spread alarm of popery to provinces
B: Prerogative rights abolished and when
Between June-August 1641 tonnage and poundage, star chamber (prerogative courts), ship money, knighthood fines, forest boundaries define
B: Anti Laudian riots during Long Parliament
Enclosure riots and iconoclasm breaks out in March 1641 (e.g. in Wolverhampton) in 1641 commons passes acts for iconoclasm and destruction of altar rails
B: Events with Bishops pre-Civil War
Stopped from taking their seats by crowds in December 1641, excluded from House of Lords in February 1642
B: Popular unrest in 1640
Maytide unrest in May 1640, Lambeth Palace attacked by 500 people
B: Growth of Royalist party and why?
Reaction to Pym's radicalism and growth of anarchy, 64 'Court' MP's became 119 Royalist MP's after Grand Remonstrance
B: Problems in London in late 1641
In December 1641 Charles made army officer Lunsford head of Tower creating panic. King's Cavaliers were forced to defend Parliament
B: Why Civil War Broke out (6 factors)
Social unrest, religion, Irish rebellion, actions of Charles, actions of Pym, underlying constitutional issues
C: Battle of Edgehill and victor
October 1642, Royalists fail to get to London
C: Turnham Green and victor
November 1642, Royalists halted by 20000 London militia
C: Royalists victories in 1643 and months
Adwalton Moor (June), Bristol (July), Lansdown and Roundway Down (July)
C: Battle of Marston Moor and victor
July 1644, Parliament wins with Scottish aid and Cromwell important
C: Battle of Naseby and victor (+ extra fact)
June 1645, Parliament wins with NMA/Cromwell crucial also capture propaganda of Charles links with Irish
C: Anecdotal effects of War (3 facts)
In Myddle 13 of 21 men died, in Chester in 6 months from June 1647 2000 died of plague, 1/2 population of Exeter became homeless
C: Nature and number of battles
Became regional battles with 635 incidents in total in the First Civil War
C: Control of Navy
Parliament had Navy and spent £800k p/a on it and Bristol, Plymouth, Southampton and Hull (main ports)
C: Importance of London
Provided £80k for NMA, provided 70% of all customs duties, trained bands helped at Turnham Green and Newbury
C: Royalists administration and personal donations
Created county committees in 1643, aristocrats controlled military districts. Relied on donations and local tax raising Earl of Worcester donated £300k during war
C: Parliamentary administration
Created a tax collecting bureaucracy with impersonal arbitrary powers. In July 1642 created committee of safety
C: 5 Ordinances of 1643 (fiscal revolution)
Assessment ordinance (specific tax from counties based on ship money), Sequestrian ordinance (confiscated 5000 Royalist property), Compulsory Loan Ordinance, Excise Ordinance (tax on beer and salt etc., Impressment ordinance
C: Parliamentary ordinance effect on Suffolk and Kent
In 1639 Suffolk had resisted £8k of ship money in 1644 their assessment raised £90k. In Kent paid more each month than under a year of Ship Money
C: 1644 as a key year for Parliament
Parliamentary control of land increased from 40% at start of year to 70% by the end
C: 1643 as crucial (4 factors)
Alliances signed, Royalist high tide halted at Newbury, Parliament made fiscal and administrative innovations, Pym's death allowed Cromwell to emerge
C: Why NMA effective? But counter-historians
Paid regularly (58% cavalry, 76% infantry), zealously religious, militarily meritocratic BUT Kishlansky feels wasn't initially religiously radical and Woolrych says pay was that of a common labourer
C: Why Parliament won war (5 factors)
Better resources, better use of resources, effective alliance, won crucial battles, NMA
D: Date and name of initial post-war settlement proposal
Newcastle Propositions in July 1646
D: Early disputes between NMA and Parliament, 4 events
Army Petition against disbanding in March 1647, Declaration of Dislike in March 1647, Parliament votes to disband some of the army in April 1647, Army declaration against their disbanding in June 1647
D: NMA and MP's in the Commons
In July 1647 60 Independent MP's flee to NMA after rioters enter commons, in August 1647 NMA occupies London and reinstates them whilst removing 11 MP's
D: Evidence of unpopularity of parliament (December)
In December 1647 there are riots in Norwich, London and Canterbury at the banning of Christmas
D: Parliamentary actions angering NMA post-second Civil War (3 actions)
Vote of No Addresses replaced in August 1648 and negotiations for Treaty of Newport begin in September 1648, extending negotiations
D: NMA actions in response to Treaty of Newport (2 actions)
Remonstrance of Army in November 1648 (linked them with Levellers) and Pride's Purge in December 1648
D: Name the 5 distinct periods 1646-9
1. attempts at a political settlement 2. NMA and Parliament conflict 3. Conflict within the NMA 4. Rebellion and War 5. English revolution and regicide
D: What event terrified Scots and Parliament immediately post-war
Victory of Irish Confederates at the Battle of Benurb in June 1646
D: Name the 7 peace deals offered to Charles 1642-8
19 Propositions (June 1642), Oxford Proposals (March 1643), Uxbridge Proposals (Jan 1645), Propositions of Newcastle (July 1646), Heads of Proposals (August 1647), Four Bills (Dec 1647) Treaty of Newport (Sep 1648)
D: Parliament struggling to pay NMA post-war
By end of 1646 Parliament owed £3m to soldiers, when it tried to disband NMA owed 43 weeks pay to cavalry and 18 weeks pay to infantry
D: Mutinying soldiers post-war
In 1646 Parliamentarian soldiers mutinied in 20 counties, in 1647 in 17 counties
D: Evidence of popular Royalism in 1647 (petitions)
Parliament forced to ban petitions in May 1647 despite this 10,000 Dorset men called for return of the king in June 1647
D: Areas of revolt in 2nd Civil War
South Wales, Kent, East Anglia (siege of Colchester), Yorkshire, Navy
D: Revolt in Kent for 2nd Civil War
In May 1648 10,000 rebels gathered at Burnham Heath but Fairfax chased them off
D: Evidence that regicide was highly unlikely in Parliament
In April 1648 they had voted 165-99 to not alter "government by King, Lords and Commons"
D: Leveller petition and number of signatures
Leveller petition of September 1648 had 40,000 signatures, they began to appeal to army
D: Figures of Pride's Purge
Pride's Purge of December 1648 arrested 45 MP's, excluded 186 MP's and 86 MP's withdrew in protest
D: Evidence that republicanism wasn't a driving force
In 1643 Henry Marten was expelled from the Commons for advocating republicanism
D: Evidence of Charles self-martyring
Wrote Eikon Basilikae (36 editions) and in 1642 had said he would either "be a glorious King or a patient martyr"
D: Why was there no settlement 1646-9 (4 factors)
Parliament divided, NMA, King would accept nothing, role of radicals
E: Charles declared and Crowned in Scotland (2 dates)
Declared King in Feb 1649, Crowned at Scone in Jan 1651
E: Dates of Cromwellian Ireland (2 dates) and atrocities
Cromwell arrives in August 1649, Cromwell leaves in May 1650. At Wexford and Drogheda 4,600 are slaughtered
E: Loyalty oath of Commonwealth
Oath of Engagement in January 1650
E: Battles against Scotland and dates
Battle of Dunbar in September 1650 and Battle of Worcester in September 1651
E: Date of dissolution of Rump Parliament and what replaces it with dates?
Dissolved in April 1653 replaced by Nominated Assembly July-December 1653
E: Harsh religious acts in 1650
Death penalty for adultery introduced in May 1650 and Blasphemy act of August 1650 passed
E: Religiously moderate act
Toleration Act of September 1650 abolishes compulsory Church attendance
E: Failed Royalist rising during Protectorate (name, date, location)
Penruddock's Rising in Wiltshire in March 1655
E: Makeup of first Council of State in 1649
14 of 41 were regicides and only 19 took Oath of Engagement
E: Legal achievements of the rump but limitation
Made minor legal reforms such as abolishing use of Latin and legal privileges of MP's but ignored Hale Commission in Feb 1653
E: High financial burden under Rump
In December 1652 monthly assessment raised from £90k to £120k
E: Sample of Rump Acts
Sample of 131: 5 religious, 3 law reform, 14 social problems, 6 economic and social reform whereas 74 security/taxation and 43 local government/army
E: What makes Cromwell reminiscent of Charles
Dissolving Rump and then a lack of a 'legal' Parliament after, 1653-8 the Personal Rule of Cromwell?
E: Choice of Nominated Assembly and makeup
140 chosen by Cromwell and NMA, 4/5 gentlemen only 12 were committed fifth-monarchists
E: Successes of Nominated Assembly (5)
Established Civil Marriage, registration of BDM, relief for impoverished debtors, protection for lunatics and sterner measures against thieves
E: Features of Protectorate (power of Lord Protector (nepotism))
Lord Protector had Council of State, had to call Parliament every 3 years, could legislate by ordinance, had control of army, could veto bills, many who shared power were related
E: Who refused to do what when during protectorate that makes Cromwell seem like Charles?
George Cony refused to pay customs duties and was imprisoned
E: What did Humble Petition and Advice introduce similar to monarchy?
Privy Council, another house, hereditary
E: Date of Leveller mutiny and where
Mutiny at Burford in May 1649
F: Pro-Royalist rising, what, where, when and conclusions?
Booth's rising in Cheshire and Lancashire in July 1659 showed lack of Royalist support
F: When is the Rump dissolved and what replaces it until when?
Dissolved in October 1659 and replaced by NMA Committee of Safety until December 1659 then no government for over a week
F: When does the Rump Parliament dissolve itself and what replaces it?
Dissolves in March 1660 and replaces by Convention Parliament in April 1660
F: When is Charles act regarding Civil War, what is it called and who isn't pardoned?
Act of Free and General Pardon, Indemnity and Oblivion of August 1660. Regicides and 9 others weren't pardoned
F: What event changes the religious climate and immediate repurcussions.
Venner's Rising of January 1661. Within 6 weeks 4688 Quakers imprisoned
F: What is the date of the military and financial settlements?
Militia act of July 1661 and Financial Settlement in November 1661
F: Name 5 acts of Clarendon Code and their dates
Corporation Act (Dec 1661), Act of Uniformity (May 1662), Quaker Act (May 1662) Conventicle Act (April 1664) , Five Mile Act (October 1665)
F: Cavalier Parliament removing religious freedom
Adopts new Prayer Book in April 1662 and Act of Uniformity May 1662
F: What religious declaration was Charles forced to withdraw and when?
Declaration of Indulgence of December 1662 was withdrawn in April 1663
F: Financial situation in 1658 that Cromwell left
Budget deficit of £400k p/a and debt of £2m
F: What two themes run through the period 1658-60
Military and Civilian disagreements, lack of leader to prevent these diagreements (Oliver's gone)
F: Initial congratulations to Richard Cromwell
Received congratulation from 28 counties and 24 towns
F: What does Seel believe?
Fall of protectorate marked the beginning of the end of the interregunum
F: Why was the Rump closed by Lambert?
Closed in October 1659 because Rump had tried to purge army of 9 officers
F: Evidence of Latent Royalism
Eikon Basilikae had 36 editions and Booth's Rising in July 169
F: Evidence of religious dissent pre-restoration
By end of Protectorate half of people were using Old Prayer Book ad Christmas and Easter were being celebrated
F: Economic situation pre-restoration
Army arrears of £900k, debt of £2.5m, tax strike without 'free' parliament, series of poor harvests
F: Why was monarchy resotred (8 factors)
Economic factors, Richard Cromwell, Oliver Cromwell, Charles II, the Army, failure of other forms of government, Monck and fear of anarchy
F: Constitutional Restoration Settlement
Triennial Act of 1664 was less strict, around 1000 pieces of legislation removed, no prerogative courts, no ship money, no knightgood fines but King could appoint own ministers and veto legislation (also Lords restored)
F: Financial Restoration Settlement
Granted £1.2m p/a but actual revenue around £700k p/a, annual deficit of £120k p/a. Hearth tax of 1662 introduced but didn't raise much
F: Military Restoration Settlement
Given control of armed forces and Navy but limited to 10,000
F: Land Restoration Settlement
Royalists could try and get land back through courts but Charles II did nothing to help 5000 Royalists who had lost land
F: Power of former Parliamentarians after restoration
12 of 27 Privy Councillors in 1660 former Parliamentarians and only 40% of JP's were former Royalists
F: Initial Religious Restoration Settlement
Charles II committed to "Liberty to tender conscience" Worcester House Conference (Oct 1660) promised to curb bishops powers and leeway on Prayer Book but not turned into legislation
F: Changes to Religious Restoration Settlement
New Prayer Book (April 1662), Act of Uniformiry (May 1662) removed 1800 clergy and Licensing Act (1662) censored theological publications
F: Fall in Royal Revenue
Royal revenue fell £820k in 165 to average £647k 1666-7
Name as many revisionist historians as you can (up to 12)
Conrad Russell (NBH), Kevin Sharpe (Scotland + ultra-short-term), J.S. Morrill (religion), Kishlansky, Elton, Tyacke (redefine Puritanism), Hexter, Hirst (Charles and Leadership), Fletcher (localism), Underdown (ecological), Zagorin (court vs. country) and Wormald
Baxter supporting social/economic
Baxter said “A very great part of the knights and gentlemen…adhered to the King”
Clarendon supporting social/economic
Clarendon saw nobility and gentry (“those of quality”) backing King while common people and ‘middling sort’ backed Parliament
Somerset supporting social/economic
In Somerset parliaments leaders were clothiers but most of the gentleman supported the King.
Norfolk MP supporting social/economic
Sir John Potts, a Norfolk MP, who said the Earl of Essex’s army, was “attended with but a very small number of gentry”.
*Southern Cotswolds supporting social/economic and localism*
Southern Cotswolds were for Parliament because of resentment of court influence in cloth trade
Wiltshire MP supporting social/economic
John Ashe, an MP in Wiltshire, said the Parliamentarian army had “all the gentry and yeomanry…that inhabited the north-east part of the country”.
Cloth areas supporting social/economic
Tradesmen, freeholders and middling sort of men supported Parliament especially where the economy depended on Cloth according to Baxter
*Anderson against social/economic and supporting religion*
“Religious motivation, however, spread through all classes” (Anderson)
York against social/economic
York 1603-1701 had 60 mayors as merchants but in the Civil War was a Royalist base
Chichester against social/economic
In December 1642 a gentry led mob of commoners seized Chichester for the King.
Hobbes against social/economic
Common people were “willing to fight for whichever side offered better prospects of pay and plunder” Hobbes (contemporary)
London demonstrations against social/economic
In late 1642 a great part of London demonstrated in favour of peace with the King including many from the ‘middling sort’
Kent against social/economic
Royalist rebels in Kent in summer 1643 were independent Yeomen
*KEY FACT against Marxism (in Yorkshire)*
In Yorkshire of those gentry families who seem to be in financial decline, three quarters were Royalist
*Key Fact against social/economic (split)*
War divided all classes equally, nobility evenly split, as did gentry with 4,000 on either side and 10,000 who made no allegiance, ‘middling sort’ split evenly
Lincolnshire against social/economic
In Lincolnshire vast crowds greeted the King in July 1642
Suffolk petition against social/economic
Suffolk’s petition of the Great Inquests at the Assizes in July 1642 pledged gentry to Royal service
Clarendon supporting religion
Clarendon stated that training for volunteers for parliament began only in towns known for “schism in religion”.
Baxter supporting religion (Armies)
Baxter said that it was religious matters that “filled up the parliament’s armies”.
Baxter supporting religion (General)
“The main body of this sort of men [Puritans]…adhered to the parliament. And on the other side, the gentry that...went to Church and heard Common Prayer…the main body of these were against the parliament.” (Baxter)
*Cornwall supporting Religion and Local*
Intense Royalist feeling in Cornwall because of their submission to the established Church and state and particularly Book of Common Prayer.
Sir John Potts supporting religion
Sir John Potts asked his countrymen to support Parliament in November 1642 “for maintenance of the true Protestant religion.”
*Pamphlets supporting religion and against constitutional*
Most pamphlets and books published in 1641-2 were about religion and not constitution
*Edmund Verney supporting religion and constitutional*
Edmund Verney wrote to his brother to consider that “majesty is sacred” and to honour the 5th commandment (Charles seen as father). Many royalists stressed the theological obligation of loyalty to the King.
*Gloucester supporting religion and local*
Gloucester supported Parliament partially due to strength of Puritanism in the city and also because Laud had moved the communion table in their Cathedral
Sir Simon D'Ewes supporting religion
Sir Simon D’Ewes felt Elizabeth I had only started reformation and Civil War could bring further reformation.
*Abhorrence of Puritanism supporting religion and constitutional*
Many were Royalist due to abhorrence of Puritan dogma and they favoured a balanced constitution, hierarchical social order and moderate church
**Links religion to constitutional to NBH**
The nightmare of Irish rebellion and the religious and constitutional failings there scared many Protestants into Parliamentarianism
Sir John Culpepper against religion
Sir John Culpepper an MP for Kent in 1640 told the Commons of his deep religious grievances against Laudianism, but become a firm Royalist in the Civil War.
*Sir Edmund Verney against religion and for constitutional*
Sir Edmund Verney said the quarrel was being fought over bishops but that he was not persuaded by this but out of loyalty for the King.
John Weare for constitutional
John Weare of Devon spoke of the “overthrow of common liberty” convincing him of Parliamentarianism
*Landed class supporting constitutional and economic*
For landed classes fear of losing property may have been a motivator and thus they wanted to preserve the existing power structures.
**Morrill linking constitutional to local and religion**
Parliamentarianism grew from centralist encroachment (Morill)
Lucy Hutchinson supporting constitutional
Lucy Hutchinson wrote that many saw themselves defending “just English liberties against Royal tyranny”.
Sir Thomas Aston supporting constitutional
Sir Thomas Aston who had criticised Ship Money became Royalist due to his prioritisation of rule of law
Sir John Gell against constitutional
In Derbyshire a chief Parliamentarian, Sir John Gell had supported ship money
Henry Slingsby against constitutional
Henry Slingsby, an MP, supported redress of grievances in 1640 but eventually supported the King
John Dutton against constitutional
John Dutton was locked up and refused ship money but still supported the King
Everitt supporting local
Everitt has called the England of 1640 as resembling a “union of partially independent states”.
*Cornwall supporting local and economic*
Tin miners of Cornwall were Royalist as they had received Royal favour in economic matters
*Derybshire supporting local and economic*
Derbyshire lead miners got Royal support against local landowners and thus sent soldiers to his army
Exeter supporting local
Sessions of the Peace in Exeter in 1642 show cases for and against both sides, thus Exeter divided by local issues
Straffordshire supporting local
Neutralism in Staffordshire ended in favour of Royalists who were better placed to prevent lower class disorder
Lindley supporting local (fenland)
Fenland commoners remained virtually oblivious to major events leading up to the outbreak of Civil War in 1642 according to Lindley
Leicestershire and Wiltshire supporting local
In Leicestershire Greys and Hastings commanded opposite loyalties as did Herberts and Seymours in Wiltshire
*Neutrality supporting localism and role of individuals*
Role of individuals was enhance by most people having little or no preference thus minorities could lead large amounts of people
Gentry supporting localism and role of individuals
Gentry often raised armies in their localities such as Lord Brooke in Warwickshire and Earl of Warwick in Essex
Specific counties (4 + city) supporting neutralism
Staffordshire, Cheshire, Yorkshire, Lincolnshire and Leicester declared neutrality in 1642
Protective forces (3 counties) supporting neutralism
In Lincolnshire, Staffordshire and Cheshire a protective force was raised to try and stop war entering the county
William Pleydell supporting neutralism
MP William Pleydell of Wiltshire referred to Scylla and Charybdis
General geographical allegiances
Geographical basis of allegiance was roughly Wales and North and West of England mainly Royalist whereas East and South were mainly Parliamentarian
Sir John Clotworth supporting NBH
In 1638 Sir John Clotworthy told a Scottish contact the Nobility and Gentry of England supported them
*Russell supporting NBH and religion*
Russell has concluded that the Royalist party was anti-Scottish before it was Royalist. Further reformation of the Church, advocated by Scots was associated with breakdown in law and order thus supported Charles
*Prayer Book supporting NBH and religion*
The Scottish Prayer book essentially started off proceedings that would lead to war and it was the Covenant, a largely religious document that united Scotland