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29 Cards in this Set

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Archduke Francis Ferdinand & Gavrilo Princip
Archduke of Austria Hungary; Young Serb who assassinated Ferdinand and his wife.
Bolsheviks
Russian communist party headed by Vladimir Lenin.
Fourteen Points
United States President Woodrow Wilson delivered a speech to Congress on January 8, 1918, outlining ___________ for reconstructing a new Europe following World War I. While many of the points were specific, others were more general, including freedom of the seas, abolishing secret treaties, disarmament, restored sovereignty of some occupied lands, and the right of national self-determination of others.
Home front
Informal term commonly used to describe the civilian populace of the nation at war as an active support system of its military. In the political jargon of militarists or nationalists, it implies the imperative of effective militarisation of a society, and a claimed necessity for social servitude to the (claimed) needs of a military command, during a time of war.
League of Nations
An international organization founded after the Paris Peace Conference of 1919. The League's goals included disarmament; preventing war through collective security; settling disputes between countries through negotiation diplomacy; and improving global welfare. The diplomatic philosophy behind the League represented a fundamental shift in thought from the preceding hundred years.
Lusitania
On May 7, 1915, a German submarine sank the British passenger liner _______ off the Irish coast with a loss of 1,198 lives, including 128 U.S. citizens.
Mandate System
System that developed in the wake of World War I when the former colonies ended up mandates under European control, a thinly veiled attempt at continuing imperialism.
Mobilization
The act of assembling and making both troops and supplies ready for war.
Mustapha Kemal (Ataturk)
Turkish army officer and revolutionist statesman, was the founder and the first President of the Republic of Turkey. Mustafa Kemal established himself as a brilliant military commander while serving as a division commander in the Battle of Gallipoli. Following the defeat of the Ottoman Empire at the hands of the Allies, and the subsequent plans for its partition, Mustafa Kemal led the Turkish national movement in what would become the Turkish War of Independence. His successful military campaigns led to the liberation of the country and the establishment of the Republic of Turkey.
Nicholas II
Last Emperor of Russia, King of Poland and Grand Duke of Finland. He ruled from 1894 until his forced abdication in 1917. It is said that Nicholas proved unable to manage a country in political turmoil and command its army in World War I. His rule ended with the Russian Revolution of 1917, after which he and his family were executed by Bolsheviks.
Reparations
A series of payments the German state was forced to make following its defeat during World War I, under Article 231 of the Treaty of Versailles.
Schlieffen Plan
The German General Staff's overall strategic plan for victory on the Western Front against France, and was executed to near victory in the first month of World War I; however, a French counterattack on the outskirts of Paris, the Battle of the Marne, ended the German offensive and guaranteed years of trench warfare.
Self-determination
A theoretical principle that a people ought to be able to determine their own governmental forms and structures.
Total war
A 20th century term to describe a war in which countries or nations use all of their resources to destroy another organized country or nation's ability to engage in war.
Treaty of Brest Litovsk
A peace treaty signed on March 3, 1918, at Brest, between Russia and the Central Powers, marking Russia's exit from World War I.
Treaty of Versailles
The peace treaty which officially ended World War I between the Allied and Associated Powers and Germany.
Triple Entente
The alliance formed in 1907 among the United Kingdom, France and Russia after the signing of the Anglo-Russian Entente.
Vladimir Ilyich Lenin
A Communist revolutionary of Russia, the leader of the Bolshevik party, the first Premier of the Soviet Union, and the main theorist of what has come to be called Leninism, which is described in Socialist literature as an adaptation of Marxism to "the age of imperialism."
Woodrow Wilson
The 28th President of the United States. As a reform Democrat, he was elected as the 34th governor of New Jersey in 1910 and as President in 1912. His first term as President resulted in major legislation including the Federal Reserve System. Reelected in 1916, his second term centered on World War I and his efforts in 1919 to shape the Treaty of Versailles.
Adolf Hitler
Chancellor of Germany from 1933 and Führer of Germany from 1934 until his death. He was leader of the National Socialist German Workers Party, better known as the Nazi Party.

______ gained power in Germany facing crisis after World War I. He used charismatic oratory and propaganda, appealing to economic need, nationalism and anti-Semitism to establish an authoritarian regime. With a restructured economy and rearmed military, ______ pursued an aggressive foreign policy with the intention of expanding German Lebensraum and triggered a major war in Europe by invading Poland. At the height of their power, Germany and the Axis Powers occupied most of Europe, but were eventually defeated by the Allies in what became known as World War II. By then, ______'s racial policies had culminated in the genocide of 11 million people, including about six million Jews, in what is now known as The Holocaust.

In the final days of the war, ______ committed suicide in his underground bunker in Berlin.
Albert Einstein
Theory of Special Relativity.
Anti-semitism
Hostility toward or prejudice against Jews as a religious, ethnic, or racial group, which can range from individual hatred to institutionalized, violent persecution. The highly explicit ideology of Adolf Hitler's Nazism was the most extreme example of this phenomenon, leading to a genocide of the European Jewry.
Bauhaus
An art and architecture school in Germany that operated from 1919 to 1933, and for the approach to design that it developed and taught.
Benito Mussolini
Led Italy from 1922 to 1943. He created a Fascist state through the use of diplomacy and propaganda. Using his charisma, total control of the media, and outright violence and intimidation against political rivals, he disassembled the existing democratic government system. His entry into World War II on the side of Nazi Germany made Italy a target for Allied attacks and ultimately led to his downfall and death.
Fascism
A radical authoritarian political philosophy that combines elements of corporatism, totalitarianism, extreme nationalism, militarism, anti-communism and anti-liberalism.
Five Year Plans
__________ for the National Economy of the USSR were a series of nation-wide centralized exercises in rapid economic development in the Soviet Union. The plans were developed by the Gosplan based on the Theory of Productive Forces that was part of the general guidelines of the Communist Party for economic development.
Franklin Roosevelt
During the Great Depression of the 1930s, _________ created the New Deal to provide relief for the unemployed, recovery of the economy, and reform of the economic system. His most famous legacies include the Social Security system and the regulation of Wall Street.
Great Depression
A period where economic activity was stagnant and at an all time low in many countries of the world. The effects of the Great Depression in the United States lasted from 1929 to the late 1930's.
John Maynard Keynes
A British economist whose ideas, called Keynesian economics, had a major impact on modern economic and political theory as well as on many governments' fiscal policies. He is particularly remembered for advocating interventionist government policy, by which the government would use fiscal and monetary measures to aim to mitigate the adverse effects of economic recessions, depressions and booms.