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52 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
New Nationalism
-When Taft dismissed Pinchot for insubordination the conservationists and Rosevelt's friends (that were armed) began to protest.
-in June1910 Roosevelt stirred up a tempest
-he shocked the Old Guard in Kansas with a spech known as "New Nationalism" it urged the national governement to increase it's power to rememdy economic and social abuses
New Freedom
p(687, 688-689)
-The democrats gave Wilson a strong progressive platform to run on; dubbed "New Freedom" program
-It included calls for stronger antitrust legislation, banking reform, and tariff reductions
Sixteenth Amendment
p(525n, 691)
Congress enacted a graduated income tax, beginning with a modest levy on incomes over $3,000(higher than avg. family income)
-by 1917 revenue from the income tax shot ahead of receipts from the tariff
Federal Reserve Act
-Most important piece of economic legislation between civil war and the new deal
-was a red letter achievement, it carried the nation through the finicial crises of the first world war of 1914-1918
-without it, the republic's progress toward the modern economic age would have been seriously retarded
Federal Trade Commission Act
-1914, the new law empowered a presidentially appointed comission to turn a searchlight on industries engaged in interstate commerce
-commissioners were expected to crush out monopolys
Zimmermann note
German foreign security Arthur Zimmermann secretly proposed a German-Mexican Alliance, tempting anti Yankee Mexico with veiled promises of recovering Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona
Fourteen Points
p(707, 718)
January 8, 1918 Wilson delivered his 14 points address to an enthusiastic congress
-Wilson's vision inspired all the drooping Allies to make mightier efforts and demoralized the enemy governments by holding out alluring promises to their dissatisfied minorities
1.proposal to abolish secret treaties
2.freedom of the seas
3.removal of economic barriers among nations
4.reduction of armament buildings
5. adjustment of colonial claims
significance: 14th point foreshadowed league of nations,
Nineteenth Amendment
p(645, 712, 755, 969)
In 1920 after the first calls for suffrage at Seneca Falls the 19th admendment gave all american woman the right to vote
Clarence Darrow, John T. Scopes, Scopes Trial
"Monkey Trial" In 1925, highschool biology teacher was indictated for teaching evolution
-Former presidential canidate Willan Jennings Bryan joined prosecution as a expert on the bible
-Bryan was made foolished by Clarence Darrow
-Scopes had $100 fine, but was significant because it began to make christians reconcile with the finding of modern day science
red scare, Sacco and Vanzetti case
p(645, 729-30)
The red scare of 1919-1920 resulted in a nation wide crusade against left winger's whose Americanism was suspect
Sacco and Vanzetti were normal men convicted in 1921 of the murder of a Massachusettes paymaster and his guard
-Because of the rascism against the men (being intalians, athiests, anarchist, and draft dodgers) after 6 years were electrocuted
-Liberals and radicals stood behind them and hung there heads when the result was final
-Communist and other radicals saw them as two martyrs in the "class struggle"
Emergency Quota Act, Immigration Quota Act
EQA:1921- Newcomerss were restricted in any given year to a definite qouta, which was set at 3% of the people of their nationality who had been living in the US since 1910
IQA:cut 3% to 2% the national orgins base was shifted from the census of 1910 to 1890
sign:southern europeans saw this as discrimtory and unfairr, absolutely no japense imigrants
Herbert Hoover
p(770-72, 777-79,775-76,713, 754, 794)
-Created a voluntary based food export for allies
-became seceretary of commerce
-urged buisness to regulate themselves rather them government regulating them
-Hoover couldn't help with the great depression(which made him agree to welfare)
Washington Conference
Teapot Dome scandal
Teapot Dome and Elk Hills
-In 1921 the secretary of the interior, Albert B. Fall, induced the secretary of the navy, to transfer these priceless naval oil reserves to the interior department
-Harding indiscreetly signed the secret order
-Harding quietly leased lands of oil to Sinclair and Doheny for a bribe of $100,000 from Doheny, and around $300,000 from Sinclair
Fall was found guilty for taking the bribe
Bonus Army
Thousand of impoverished war vetrans both of war and unemployment, were now prepared to move on to Washingtonto demand their immediate payment of BEF
-They shacked up in "Hooverville"
-Hoover eventually sent the army to evict them led be General Douglass MacAuthor
America First Committee
They contended that America should concentrate what strength it had to defend its own shore lest a victorious Hitler, after crushing Britain, plot atransoceanic asault.
lending or leasing American arms to reeling democracies
-the bill in 1916 was praised by the administration as a device that would keep the nation out of the war rather than drag it in
Wagner Act
1935, created a powerful new National labor relations board for adminstrative purposes an reasserted the right of labor to engage in self organization and to bargain collectively through representatives of it's own choice.
-It proved to be one of the real milestones on the rocky road of the uslabor movement
Neutrality Acts
1935,1936, and 1937, taken together stipulated that when the president proclaimed the existence of a foreign war, certain restrictions would automatically go into effect. No American could legally sail on a belligerent ship, sell or transport munitions to a belligerent, or make loans to a belligerant
Committee to Defend America by Aiding the Allies
Supporters of aid to Britain
argument had 2 sides
-appeal for direct succor to the British
-appeal for assistance to the democracies
Fair Employment Practices Commission
p(835, 837, 895)
In response to an order of black getting equal oppurtunities for blacks in war jobs and in the armed forces
-Rosevelt established (FEPC) to monitor compliance with his edict
-sign:the war help black long struggle for equality
Yalta Conference
p(867, 870, 873)
Churchill and Roosevelt made agreements for buckling German lines and shackling beaten axis foce, stolan agreed that poland with revised boundries, should have a representative government based on free election, Bulgaria and Romania were also to have free election
-***further announced plans for the united nations
Potsdam Conference
July 1945 sounded the death of knell Japanese
-president truman met in a 17 day parlay with Stalin and the British leaders
-the conferenc issued a stern ultimatum to Japan: surrnder or be destroyed
Marshall Plan
p(875, 919)
US giving aid to democratic European countries offered to Soviet's they turned it down. spent 12.5 reviving the Western European Democratic Nations. George Marshal was secretary of state and General during the war.
Taft-Hartley Act
was passed over Trumans veto
-labor leaders condemed the Taft Hartley act as a "slave-labor law" It outlawed the "closed"(all union) shop made unions liable for damages that resulted from jurisdunctional disputes among themselves and required union leader to take a noncommunist oath.
House Committee on Un American Activities
This Committee was created created to investigate disloyalty and subversive organizations.
Massive retaliation
This policy sought to counter the growing Soviet threat. It viewed nuclear weapons as a means of deterring war and as a first recourse should deterrence fail. The premise of the policy was that if the Soviet Union attacked Europe, the United States would use tactical nuclear weapons to blunt the assault.
Brown v. Board of Education
The United States Supreme Court overturned its earlier ruling, declaring the establishment of separate public schools for black and white students inherently unequal. This victory paved the way for integration and the Civil Rights Movement.
Martin Luther King Jr
(January 15, 1929 – April 4, 1968) was one of the main leaders of the American civil rights movement, a political activist, a Baptist minister, and was one of America's greatest orators. In 1964, King became the youngest man to be awarded the Nobel Peace Prize (for his work as a peacemaker, promoting nonviolence and equal treatment for different races). On April 4, 1968, King was assassinated in Memphis, Tennessee.
Great Society
The Great Society was a set of domestic programs proposed or enacted in the United States on the initiative of President Lyndon B. Johnson (1963-1969). Two main goals of the Great Society social reforms were the elimination of poverty and racial injustice. New major spending programs that addressed education, medical care, urban problems, and transportation were launched during this period.
Cuban missile crisis
(October 14-28 1962)
US declared its blockade on Cuba.
Voting Rights Act
outlawed the requirement that would-be voters in the United States take literacy tests to qualify to register to vote, and it provided for federal registration of voters in areas that had less than 50% of eligible minority voters registered. The act also provided for Department of Justice oversight to registration, and the Department's approval for any change in voting law in districts that had used a "device" to limit voting and in which less than 50% of the population was registered to vote in 1964.
John Rolfe
“father of the tobacco industry” – in 1612 (1613) he perfected methods of raising and curing tobacco (and used seeds from the West Indies) to make the tobacco less bitter and more suitable to European tastes
tobacco became the financial savior for Virginia, which was suffering economically as there was no gold to enrich the Virginia Company stockholders, and so tobacco was grown in increasingly huge quantities
* problems: soil degradation, land encroachment on Indians, need for more labor → slavery
* marriage to Pocahontas (Rebecca) sealed the peace with the Powhatans after the First Anglo-Powhatan War in 1614
killed in 1622 during Indian raids
House of Burgesses
1619, Virginia
assembly of settlers authorized by the London Company
to make sure that decisions of the London Company are appropriate to the circumstances in Virginia and to call for reconsideration if they are not
issues of concern: relations with Native Americans, public vices (drunkenness, gambling, idleness), conversion and education of Native Americans
* indication that rulings of London with not be accepted outright, but will be subject to review by the House of Burgesses
* in effect, an assertion of their own independence of governmental action
William Penn
Quaker (against family’s wishes)
kicked out of Oxford for “unorthodox religious views”
1681 – grant of land from the Charles II in payment of debt to his late father
* Penn advertised – people came from all over Europe
* “forward-looking spirits and substantial citizens”
* liberal land policy
* true religious tolerance and civil liberties
* → many immigrants
humane and fair treatment of Indians
The Great Awakening (1730s - 1740s)
reaction to: tedious sermons, intellectualism seen as sapping spiritual vitality, loss of religious fervor, liberalization of church membership requirements, Half-Way Covenant
revitalization of religious fervor, mass conversions, “old lights” vs. “new lights”
Jonathan Edwards, George Whitefield
increased numbers of churches, new missionary work among Indians, new colleges and universitiesfirst mass movement of the American people, break down of sectional barriers
** return to Calvinist reliance on God, predestination, not Arminius’s idea of salvation through good works
** rejuvenation of religion → new churches, new universities
Albany Congress (1754)
intercolonial congress summoned by the British government
only 7 of 13 colonies represented
immediate goals: keep the Iroquois loyal to the British (chiefs bribed with gifts, incl. guns)
long-range goals: greater colonial unity to bolster common defense against France [Franklin’s cartoon: Join, or Die]
** Benjamin Franklin’s Plan of Union was unanimously adopted by the congress, but rejected by Brits as giving too much independence and rejected by colonies as not giving enough independence
** first public ideas about intercolonial unity
Intolerable Acts (1774)
** targeted Massachusetts, but galvanized opposition to Great Britain in all the colonies
Boston Port Act – closed the port until damages were paid and order secured
Massachusetts Charter Act – swept away chartered rights (choice of council, juries, town meetings restricted)
Administration of Justice Act – trials against British officials with colonial plaintiffs moved to England or Halifax
Quartering Act – British soldiers to be housed in private homes, Gen. Gage the military governor
[NOT the Quebec Act, though it was mistakenly included by Americans as part of the reaction to the Tea Party]
Common Sense (January 1776)
Thomas Paine
America would flourish better without England
England’s role is as a profiteer, not a protector; England has been a “bad parent” using its “child” for monetary gain; England pulls America into European conflicts → prevents America from beneficial trade and alliances; England has been cruel and murderous
Nature demands separation – distance, relative size
reconciliation would be dangerous
** America had a sacred mission, a moral obligation to the world, to set herself up as an independent, democratic republic, untainted by association with corrupt and monarchical Britain
** republicanism – authority from popular consent; self-governance; civic virtue
** stirred colonialists – what they needed and wanted to hear about independence (facing reality)
Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions
Jefferson and Madison
invoked state sovereignty over federal powers
* “compact” theory – states had created the federal government and had a compact (or contract) regarding the federal government’s jurisdiction; the federal government was an “agent” or creation of the states; the individual states were the final judges of whether the federal government had exceeded its authority
VA and KY Resolutions concluded that the federal government had exceeded its constitutional powers in the Alien and Sedition Acts
** Therefore, these Acts were null and void (nullification) as a “rightful remedy” as determined by the individual states → this concept has great consequences for the idea of secession
Neutrality Proclamation of 1793
re: American reaction to the French Revolution and France’s battles with Britain
Jeffersonian Democratic-Republicans wanted to enter the conflict on France’s side (Franco-American Alliance of 1778)
Federalists did not want war
** President Washington – strategy of delay, rationale = America was too weak militarily, economically, and politically to wage war
Declared neutrality in conflict between Britain and France and warned Americans to be impartial
** Isolationism → a tradition?
Marbury v. Madison 1803
The Federalist Congress passed the Judiciary Act of 1801 after Adams lost the election to Jefferson. It created 16 new circuit courts with federal judges, and new federal attorneys, marshals, clerks, and 42 new federal justices of the peace. Adams made the appointments of the “midnight judges,” who were appointed for life, just before leaving office. All were Federalists.
Jefferson ordered Secretary of State Madison not to deliver the commissions and William Marbury petitioned the Supreme Court for a writ of mandamus under the provisions of the Judiciary Act of 1789. Marshall ruled that Marbury was legally entitled to his commission, but that the Judiciary Act of 1789 was unconstitutional as Congress could not legally give the Supreme Court the right to issue writs of mandamus because the Constitution did not specifically designate writs of mandamus within the Supreme Court’s original jurisdiction, but only when exercising appellate jurisdiction.
This was the Supreme Court decision which established the precedent of judicial review – the right of the Supreme Court to rule on the constitutionality of acts of Congress.
Louisiana Purchase
The Treaty of San Ildefonso of 1800 between Spain and France caused Spain to revoke the right of deposit to Americans, who needed access to the Mississippi River and the warehouses at New Orleans. Jefferson sent Madison to join Livingston in France to offer to buy New Orleans and as much territory to the east as they could for $10 million.
Napoleon, suddenly annoyed by his American colonies after problems in Santo Domingo, offered to sell all of Louisiana for $15 million.
Jefferson agreed, but was concerned because the Constitution did not, strictly speaking, permit such a purchase and there were no provisions for making states from territory not already possessed by the U.S. at the time of the Constitution. It was argued that the requirement that laws be made “in pursuance” of the Constitution did not apply to treaties.
Louisiana was purchased in 1803, doubling the size of the U.S. (+ 828,000 square miles)
Monroe Doctrine
1823. John Quincy Adams, as Secretary of State for Monroe, was a nationalist. When British Foreign Minister George Canning proposed a joint declaration by Britain and the U.S. renouncing any interest in acquiring Latin American territory and warning the rest of Europe away, he was suspicious that what Britain was really trying to do was get the U.S. not to acquire any more territory in its own neighborhood as Britain’s navy could easily by itself keep Europe away from new acquisitions. So instead, Adams convinced Monroe to make a statement in his State of the Union address that warned the European powers against any further colonization and intervention in the Americas. What territory Europeans had was not an issue, but they were to keep their monarchical systems out. It had practically no military muscle behind it at the time, but it became policy, and was indicative of American nationalism and it deepened the illusion that isolationism worked.
Tariff of Abominations
high tariff promoted by Jackson supporters who expected it to be defeated by Congress, thereby embarrassing President Adams
favored western agricultural interests by raising tariffs or import taxes on imported hemp, wool, fur, flax, and liquor
aided New England manufacturing interests by raising the tariff on imported textiles
hurt the South because it did not protect cotton, but raised the cost of manufactured goods
led J.C. Calhoun to write (anonymously) The South Carolina Exposition, in which he argued that the tariff of 1828 was unconstitutional and that states had the right to nullify the law
** attempt to use nullification to prevent secession, but lead to the Force Bill which authorized military force to collect taxes and helped lead to the Civil War
Freeport Debate
a series of debates between Abraham Lincoln and Stephen A. Douglas for the Senate seat from Illinois included the debate at Freeport
since the Dred Scott case had brought into question the constitutionality of popular sovereignty, Lincoln asked Douglas, who was a champion of popular sovereignty, whether popular sovereignty would prevail or the Supreme Court if a vote were taken in a territory prohibiting slavery
Douglas argued that popular sovereignty would be dominant over the Supreme Court’s decision
** Douglas’ position angered Southern Democrats, splitting the Democratic Party further and added to the probability of Southern secession
Dred Scott case
Supreme Court Decision, Chief Justice Rober B. Taney. Dred Scott v. Sandford
Dred Scott sued for freedom while in Missouri, based on having lived for many years in free areas (IL, WI).
1) Scott was a black slave and not a citizen, so had no right to sue in federal court;
2) a slave is private property and can be taken into any territory and legally held there in slavery (5th Amend.);
3) Missouri Compromise (already effectively repealed by the Kansas-Nebraska Act 1854) was unconstitutional as Congress had no power to ban slavery form any territories, regardless even of what the territorial legislatures might want.
** pushed the North and South further apart (Supreme Court = 2 free soilers, 7 Southerners)
** Popular Sovereignty dealt a blow
** → “Freeport Doctrine” (Douglas) to mollify popular sovereignty advocates
** rights for all blacks diminished as Taney ruled that free blacks were not citizens
Compromise of 1877
Hayes-Tilden election of 1876
Democrat Tilden received the majority of popular votes and appeared to need only 1 more electoral vote to be declared the winner from the three states in contention
South Carolina, Florida, and Louisiana were still under military reconstruction and so controlled by the Republicans. Therefore, the election results in these states were unclear and two sets of returns sent to Washington, DC.
Constitutionally, it was unclear what should be done
Electoral Count Act set up an electoral commission of 15 men (5 each from Senate, House, Supreme Court), but it was 8 Republicans to 7 Democrats and the Dems. threatened to filibuster to stop the process →
Compromise = Hayes takes office as president; federal troops to be withdrawn from last southern states, Democrats assured of some patronage posts, a bill subsidizing the Texas and Pacific Railroad would be enacted [not all promises kept]
* Hayes inaugurated as president
* military reconstruction ended
* Republican party ends its commitment to racial equality, southern blacks exposed to discriminatory Black Codes and Jim Crow laws
Sherman Silver Purchase Act
Treasury would purchase $4.5 million of silver bullion per month and pay for it using Treasury notes which could be redeemed in either gold or silver. The certificates could be reissued (resold), repeating the process.
This was to satisfy demands for currency expansion and inflation from the farmers.
Enacted along with the McKinley Tariff Act (high tariff), which benefitted Eastern businessmen and was a financial hardship for farmers.
* Panic of 1893 cause holders of the notes to redeem them for gold, causing the gold reserve in the Treasury to drop dangerously causing fear that faith in the dollar’s soundness would be destroyed.
The Act was repealed in 1893, but the drain on gold continued until Cleveland appealed to J.P. Morgan for assistance.
* Controversy over the government’s arrangement with financiers; political parties were in danger of splitting into gold and silver factions; major issue in the Election of 1896
Dawes Severalty Act
dissolved many tribes as legal entities
wiped out tribal ownership of land
set up individual Indian family heads on 160 acres – full title and citizenship to be granted after 25 years of “good behavior”
official government policy until 1934 Indian Reorganization Act
** attempt to destroy tribal organization, nearly ruined Indian society
Exclusion Act, Chinese Exclusion Act, Contract Labor Law
Exclusion Act – 1882
prohibited paupers, criminals, and the insane from entering (return fare to be paid by the shipper)
Chinese Exclusion Act – 1882
Chinese barred from immigration
renewed every 10 years until 1943
Contract Labor Law – 1885
prohibited the importation of foreign workers under contract (hired by U.S. companies at wages lower than normal)
favored by American labor which aimed to restrain unfair competition from low-wage immigrant workers
** America less welcoming, American Protective Association
Sherman Anti-Trust Act of 1890
declared illegal businesses or trusts that caused “restraint of trade or commerce”
violations of the law were misdemeanors and big business could drag the cases on for years, so the law proved ineffective
made no distinction between “good” or “bad” trusts
** unexpectedly used to curb labor unions (based on legal interpretation of corporations as “persons” deserving protection under the 14th Amendment)
** reflected public interest as more important than private interest
** retreat from laissez-faire attitude of government toward business as the federal government began to assume responsibility for protection of the public interest